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Death of Philip Shoonmier    Cost of food    Description of forward defense (pickets)    Execution of W. Minix   


On the 27th [August, 1862] we landed in Louisville Ky & went to a hot place in the open commons in the borders of town & went in camp & called the camp Camp Kenefler. & there I received a letter from home stating that they had saw in the papers that James was mortalty wounded & we could not get any letters from him & we gave up ever seeing James any more. On the

2nd day of September 3 more comps came down from Indianapolis & one company came afterwards. We moved from Camp Kenefler (under command of Coln Fred Kenefler who was commissioned as our colonel) & went to Camp Yates about 5 miles East of Louisville & we drilled there & our regt had the comps lettered. Our company is Company I. While in camp at this plase we had to march to the city several times on grand review or something else. & we went out to Middle Town towards Mumfordsville where our men had a fight & had to retreat from Richmond Ky. We covered their retreat. We moved from Camp Yates to a Poplar grove on a hill south of Louisville about a mile & from there we moved in the edge of town & built a line of rifle pits for our army under command of Genl Buel was retreeting to Louisville & the rebel army under command of Genl Brag was close in persuit & it was expected by some that the rebels would make an attack on Louisville. & great exitement existed in the City. But Brag did not come & after the army comenced coming in town we moved camp in town to a depot & drawed new guns. We drew the Vinsans rifle & saber bayonets & we stayed several days & then left on the

1st day of October leving quite a nomber of our company sick. Among them Lieut James Bell, & I was very unwell & not able to start on a campaign for I had took a severe coald & it settled on my lungs & breast & marching in the hot sun & dust nearly smuthered me, but I coul not think of staying back from the company.

* * *

[The narrative breaks off here in the middle of a page, both in the original pencilled notes on loose leaves and in the ink-written copy, also on loose leaves of note paper which he transcribed and mailed home. The ink copy of the first sheet of this has a notation in the same handwriting in ink in the upper right hand corner: "In front of Atlanta Ga August 18th A.D. 1864." The next two sheets bear the same notation except that the date is August 19th. I do not know why the soldier did not copy these few sheets until so long after the date of the happenings, for part of the time at least he had been making the copies not long after the original entries in his memorandum books.

The letter below takes up the narrative at Oct. 13, 1862. Although he says in this letter that he had written up to the 13th and had had word from his father that those notes had been received, we do not have them. So nearly two weeks are missing from the story at this point. According to the HISTORY OF THE 79TH REGIMENT published in 1899, they had pursued Bragg's army south through Bardstown and Springfield to Ferryville, where an important victory was won by the Union forces on October 8th. They then moved on southeast to Danville, Kentucky. F.B.L.]

* * *


Camp 8 m from
Nashville, Tenn
Nov December the 3rd A.D.1862

Father Dear Ser I will finish the note of our travils now as soon as I get time and send it home in letters and after you read it I want you to save all the peices which I send in letters till I send them all and then put them all together and save them till I get home and then I can tell you our travils and a great deal about the land and cuntry which I could not write in my little book as we was traveling. I would like to send it all in one book but I cant. I will have to double the paper and send it in letters a sheet or two at a time and if you dont get any part write and I will send it again. I will comence at October the 13th. I wrote up to the 13th in a letter and sent it and you received it.

Oct 13th we marched to Danville and formed in line of battle near the town on the Lexington pike and stayed there all knight.

14th marched to Danville and took the Stanton pike and marched to the town and camped on a hill in sight of town. At 11 oclock we was called in line and marched 6 mile and Shelled the rebbels and they run and we laid down to sleep and

on the 15th we started and marched to Crab orchard and shelled the rebbels like thunder and they skedaddled and the 79th Regt was put in fron to skermish and some of our men got wounded and died afterwards and we killed some of the rebbels. They shelled us and their shells burst all around us and amung us but they did not kill any instantly. We run them through the woods and over the hills. Levi and I shot at them and it seemed to ticle Levi to see their shells cut the limbs of the trees so and fall so cloos and not hirt him. We did not go in camp till after dark.

16th marched 5 m and went in camp at the big Springs and stayed till the

17th and I and some more are left back for guards and the others are gone on. They went 6 miles and stayed till nearly dark then started back and we camped at the same place that knight.

18th marched the same road to a river called Rock castle and we went 3 miles on the other side up the mountain to the old battle ground called wild cat and at sundown we started back and went 4 m and went to bed in a thicket of bushes briers where a rabbit could not run through very fast.

19th Sunday we was ordered to wash our close. At half past 1 oclock we started and marched to the old batle ground and stoped and then started and marched 8 mile and I could not keep up and it was about 9 Oclock when I got up with the Regt.

20th Set around till noon and then marched a m and camped and wated for our provision till knight.

21st Stayed at the same place and drilled twice in the day.

22nd Had marching orders. At 4 oclock we drilled. I got one pint of cling peaches for 10 cts and a quart of dried aples for 10 cts and we had a nice denner. Our crackers are very poor. Some have worms in them. Levi got a letter from Henry N. Crabb. We both washed with a pint of water. We have to go 2 miles for all our water. We get very hungry and dry sometimes. We parch corn when we can get it. And drink any water we can get if it is out of a mud hole.

23rd Drilled in the foornoon and got orders to march at 2 oclock and we started at 2 and marched back over the mountains 12 miles to Rocastle and past one house where a family lived and we thought we would stop there but we kept on to the big springs. It made 18 m. Lots of boys played out. Levi was sick with the headache and would have stoped if I would have stoped with him and some that stoped was taken prisoners and parooled.

24th I got a wake this morning and saw a big frost for the first time this yere. We marched to Mount Vernon and turned left and marched 6 miles toward Sumner Set and camped.

25th marched 18 m to Summerst and went in camp and at about dark it commenced to sleet and rain and the cournel said we should go and get tents and put them up and we got ourn up and laid down and it snowed about 5 or 6 inches deep in the knight.

Sunday the 26th it looks very gloomy. The roads was very dusty yesterday and now a big snow is staring us in the face it snowed during the day we rested that day

27th it cleared off last knight and the sun is shining very nice. We rested till evening and then we went on dressparaid and stayed till knight.

28th started at sunup to march and the roads was as slippery as they could be. And we marched 4 m and was delayed by the teems that was before and artilery geting up a large and awful bad hill till nearly sundown. Then we started and marched 8 m and then went in camp.

29th we marched till nearly knight and then went in camp.

30th we started at daylight and marched 16 m and went in camp before knight and I went to a house and bought a canteen fool of cain molasses for 25 cts. And the boys got some turnups at a patch and we made some soop and felt buncum for the molasses and turnups was new to us.

31st we marched till 1 oclock and went in camp near Calumbia a little town. And Levi was not able to carry his gun and accuteriments and I got them halled for he has been pestered with the piles. I got some chees and sweet crackers and rasons and balonea and we stewed some dryed apples that I had bought a fiew days before and we felt better after eating. And I received 4 letters and Levi 1. And we was much pleesed and entertained by reading. Calumbia is the county seat of Adair County. You can find it in the geography.



November the 1st we marched till nearly knight and went in camp and then our company was ordered out on picket we took a position in a hollow on a byroad, something like a half mile from the artilery which was in front. I stood guard while 2 of our squad went and stole a bee hive and got some huney and they gave me a good mess for standing in their place when they was gon.

2nd we was all up and eat our brakefast before day and at day brake 3 men came to us with pies corn and wheat bread and cooked stuffed chicken. We began to by of them. I traded some coffey fore one of their chickens. And the captain came and told us to hury and fall in ranks and come and form in line in the company for the whole Regt was coming. We hurried and got in line and presented arms to the curnel as he past and took our place in the Regt. And this was the morning of the 2. I think it was Sunday we marched through Edmunton a small town and went in camp 5 m from glasscow [Glasgow].

3rd we marched to Glasscow which is the county seet of Baron Co Ky. And struck the Louisville Pike and marched 2 m. to Bever crick and went in camp near plenty of water.

4th we rested all day and at knight was marched to headquarters and had a silk banner and Flag presented to the 79th Regt by the ladies of Indianapolis and Mr. Sheets delivered a speech and then Curnel Oyler returned our thanks in the place of Curnel Neffler and we had a brass band and the music made me feel just like I did when they was beting up for volunteers in Brown Co. It was cheering to us to get our flags.

5th we marched through the town of Glasscow and camped at knight on the banks of Baran River. And I traded Levies and my 3 days rations of coffey for some flower and we baked something like 12 slapjacks for supper and eat fried beef. And Levi got a pumpkin and I stewed it for brakefast and in the morning

the 6th I got up and baked about 12 panckaes before day and fried our pumpken and made some Molasses and fried some beef and feested. And we marched to a town called Scochville the CO of Allen CO and we went in camp.

7th it spit snow all foornoon and at 12 oclock we started and marched about 12 m and we crest the Tennessee line at about 4 oclock and it snowed and rained all afternoon and we camped in the woods and

8th we start after sunup and marched 8 m and I gave out in my leg and got in the company wagon and road and we marched to Galliton and turned south in town and went 3 m and that made 25 m that we traveled that day. We camped befor sunset on the side of a hill where the cedar growed thick and picle pares all over the ground like the ones in the garden.

9th we rested and rubbed our guns. It was Sunday and we had general inspection and we had to carry water and wood between a quarter and a half mile and as bad as my leg was I carried 3 oak rails to camp without stoping to rest.

10th we marched across the Cumberlin River and marched to the pike leading to Nashville and formed in line of batle for morgens gerrillies1 was not far off and after a while we marched to a little town called Silver Springs and went in camp. And the boys went and got a sheep and we had fresh meat.


1 "morgens gerrillies" doubtless means the famous guerilla raiders of John H. Morgan.


11th we was expecting to leve but we did not and in the evening Levi and little Thomas McIlvain went and got a fat shoat and skined it and they cooked it when I was on guard and we had a tender mess. And it rained and was very disagreeable standing my guard for we had no tents to sleep in and we had to lay in the rain.

12th we was drawed in line of batle before day and stood in the rain till after daylight and when it stoped raining the guns had to be cleaned and greased and in the evening two of our mess went out a foriaging again and they got a half of a hog making about fifty lbs and I cooked our 50 lbs in a large camp ketle. And on the

13th in the morning we had a fine time. And we drilled 2 hours. And Levi and I washed our bodys and a shirt and we put our tents in line and cleened the quarters nice. And we halled logs up to make fier right before the tents (a fiew words mist of the 11th proceedings. I washed two shirts and went without a shirt til I dryed mine. I had wore my shirt 42 days without taking it of. And I was glad to get word that we could wash our close. I have but one shirt. Someone stold the others. I have not slept with my panse off since I left home)

14th we was commanded to get our brakefast and eat and get dinner cooked and in our haversacks till five oclock and be ready to fall in line. We did so and formed in line and marched 1 1/2 miles to a field to drill. And we drilled and came to camp at sundown and I went and got some corn to make humeny [hominy].

15th I am on guard today. I got my humeny started before I went on guard and washed it out when I was relieved and the regt went to the same place to drill today and they have just returned. It is sun down and I am sitting on my bed writing this note of my memorandom.

16th it commenced to rain about dinner and the 79th was ordered in line to go out on picket. We went 3 m and had a rainy knight to stand. The boys got some muton, which was good although we had no salt to salt it.

17th it drizzled rain part of the day and was tolerable warm and the birds sang so nice and cheerful that it made me think of spring. Levi and I gathered about a peck of hickernuts. At 4 oclock we was took back to camp and I received a letter from paw and Levi from Henry N Crabb. It cheered us very much to read them.

18th we drawed some clothing but not as much as we needed but I think we will get some more before long. And at 10 oclock the horn blowed for us to get ready to march and we struck tents and got ready to march in a half hour. And we marched 8 m till dark and never stoped to rest. We past by the farm and residence of old General Jackson.* It is a nice place. We gave three cheers as we past at knight. After we layed down to sleep it rained and we got weet. The tent that we had they took for the sick and we layed out.


*The Hermitage


19th I was detailed for to help work the roads around the bridge that was burned on the pike acrost the river called Stoney river. And it drizzled rain till nearly noon and then it poured down. And Smith's devision past by and I hered that the 36th Regt was in the devision and I went and inquired and found cousin Wm Thomas Huntzinger and talked a while with him and he was goying to come and see me if they stoped working on the roads.

20th we fixed our guns and acuterments for general inspection and at 2 oclock we was ordered out on picket.

21st we was ordered into camp early and we fixed for to march and marched within 6 m of Nashville and turned to the left and went in camp on a high elevated place nice for a camp where I think we will stay a while.

22nd it is a nice clear day but it is cold. Levi got 3 pumpkins and stewed them.

23rd I went and hunted cusin Wm and he came over and stayed all knight with us and Levi got some crouder pees [Crowder peas] in a cornfield and we had a nice mess. I received a letter from home and was glad to read it and to read a fiew lines from James. O how glad I was to know that he was a home and

24th we drilled batallion drill.

25th we marched in sight of Nashville and seen the state house and we turned to the left and went in camp in a nice place 2 miles from town.

26th in the four noon cleened up the quarters and after dinner skirmish and batallion drill

27th was thanksgiving day and the soldiers was not to work nor drill but we had to get wood for fier and I was detailed to chop. And we choped till dinner and then till after dark. And I mist a good sermon delivered by our old Majer and that I hated the worst kind.

28th we drawed beef and rice and beens and flour and it was the first flower we ever drawed. And at a little after dinner the horn blowed for us to get ready to march and we was hurried to get the wagons loaded and we marched on the pike leading from Nashville to Murpys burrow [Murfreesboro] 6 m and went in camp. We was marched at very quick time and had to carry our beens and rice and flo. And we pitched tents on a part of as fine a farm as I ever seen. There is an insan assylum. It covers near an acre of ground. It is four story in front. It has near 200 windows and in front of the building out to the pike there is about 20 acres in grass and nice bushes set out and about 30 or 40 acres in apple and peach orchard and large gardens and vine yards and a glass house, and after dark it drizzled rain and then cleared of. And

29th it was a nice cold day. We cleaned the quarters in the four noon and got orders to go on picket after dinner and we went some distance from camp and stood picket.

30th Sunday morning. I composed a song while on post before day. It was as follows.

November the 30th A D 1862 Tennessee________


When the knight was dark:
I stood as a guard;
And eger through the dark;
My pearcing eyes did look.


And listened to here;
If the rebbles foot;
Was not a coming;
On the dry leaves.


But daylight came at last;
The rebbles did not come;
And very glad was I;
To return to camp safe.


And find my messmates;
All alive and safe;
When in a land;
Of enemys we ware

Composed and writ by William H. Huntzinger

And we was relieved and got to camp before dark and had orders at rolecall to be ready for general review the next day till 9 oclock.



December the 1st we fixed and went a mile from camp on a splendid farm for review and it was a cloudy and cold day for it had rained the knight before. We wated for General Rasen Cranse [Rosencrans] to come but he did not come. We went back and it was Levi's and my time to go on guard and we was released at 8 oclock on the morning of the

2nd and at 9 oc we went out to the same place for review and the Brigadier General came and the whole devision of Vancleevs was out and we had a nice time for the soldiers was showing their selves and the officers and the horses went as gaily as the pictures you have seen often. And I have douted whether they ever traveled so gaily till I saw them going on double quick since we came to war. Gen Rosencrans went all along the line and talked to us. And he is a mild countanenced fellow and I think he is a good commander. The artillery was out. James can give you some ideah how we marched around and General Rosencrans told General Bayty that the 79th had their things in the nicest order and the cleenest guns in the Devision. James can tell you how many men there generly is in a Devision. We went to camp a little before dark and had orders to go on picket and the old guard got to stay at camp and get to sleep by cleening a gun a piece. The next

day 3rd we have cleened our guns and washed nice and cleen and I must write some

4th we went on skirmish dril very early it was very frosty and cold and at about 10 oclock we went out on batallion drill and we drilled batallion orders [?] a while and then Company skermished. And then Batallion then the Regt skermished and that was fun. And then batallion till dark and then went to camp.

5th we had orders to get ready to go on picket at 8 oclock and we got breakfast and it began to snow and we went out on picket and it snowed hard and we got wet. It was a dissagreeable time. It snowed 2 inches deep and at dark it cleared off and froze hard and Levi and my self and four others got in a smoke house and bilt a fier and we was left on reserve and stayed all knight in the smoke house and I got up in the knight and the moon was total Eclipsed. It lookes quear for I had never saw the moon in eclips.

6th we got in off our picket before dinner and got orders to make flows [flues] in our tents and I put one in our tent and it is nice and keeps us warm.

7th Sunday we had inspection of guns in the morning and then rested till knight and then we wated till nearly midnight to draw rations from the quarter masters and got very cold standing around

8th we had orders to get three days rations in our haver sacks and be ready at any time to march. We wated till noon and did not go. And we drilled after dinner. And I went out and got a overcoat of one of the 35th Ind voln for $2.00, for they had left theirs at Nashville last spring. And last fawl they drawed again not knowing that they would get them any more and now they have got two and cant carry them. Mine is nearly as good as new. One doller was Tennessee money and that I got for coffey. It is good here but not at Indiana I recon. And the other was a good ways from home. Levi took the cramp collick and suffered a right smart.

9th Levi reported to the docters and got medison and is better. I went to the same regt and got a overcoat for Levi for $1.40 sutler tickets. It is as good as mine and we wont have to draw any. They cost $7.00 and some cents. I got a peach pie and ginger bread for coffey. And we drilled in the four noon and after dinner we went and those who had none drawed overcoats. And we had orders to be ready for dressparaid at half past four oclock. We got ready and all in line with our overcoats on. And the general came and ordered us to follow out to the pike and the whole brigad was on the road in a fiew minits and marched as fast as we could walk and sometimes double quicked. And we soon met horsemen who told us they had a fight. Foriage train was out and the guards is the ones that had the fight. The agetant of the 35th Ind. Volrs. (a boy only) got kild and his father Lieutenant Colonel of the same Regt was wounded. We went 3 m and past all of the foriage train. We went through farms and woods and came to a pike and halted and about faced and went to camp as fast as we went out and was ordered to go to bed as soon as we eat super and we did so and was soon called to pack nap sacks and lay with rigon on and guns by our sides. And we got down again and the orders came to draw rations for 3 days and put them in our haver sacks. We did so and again laid down to sleep expecting to be called up before daylight. Levi was not well yet. He did not go out with us. He suffered through the knight a great deal.

10th I went early to the sutlers to see if they would take a box and express it at Nashville for me. I was a goying to draw and send a new overcoat to you. I had one picked out but they told me that Commander Rosecrans had ordered nothing took to or from the express office. And I dont know how long it will last so. And our lieutenant advised me not to try to send one homenow under the present circumstances. And we had orders very early to get ready to go on picket and we went on picket and the news came that the tents was struck and loaded on the wagons and the camp guards was called of one post. We began to look for fight. We stood at the old line till dark. And we went back a half m and it was cold standing out without tents. And there was no fight. And Abram Nidish took very sick and is sent to the hospitle. I dont think he will not get well.

11th there was two brigads went out and their bateries with the foriage train and we expected they would was goying to have a fight for the amulances wagons was along and the docters and their medison. We was relieved from picket and got to camp before dark. The camp was moved back 3 m and the ones that were not able to go on picket had the tents up. After we came in the word came for reinforcement and brigade went out on double quick and they had a fight. I have not hered the result (they have a way of telegrafting along the pike by a white flag and a read spot in the center by day and a terpentine ball lit by night. The persons are stationed along the pike in sight of each other and move them so as to understand each other). We cleened our quarters and I washed some clothing for myself and Levi after dark and dried them by the fier.

12th we got orders very early to go out with the foriage train. Our brigade went and Levi said it looked like when their was any fun to be seen he was not able to go. We took a different rout and went back to Jackons farm about 10 m. And we did not see any rebbles and we got back with our foriage inside of the picket till dark and had 2 m to camp they marched very fast.

13th we drilled and went on dressparaid. Levi was still worse. It was hard for him to get about. I got him a can of butter for $1.25. It was about two lbs- and he eat a little.

14th Sunday it is as warm as summer. We put on cleen cloos as many as we had and had inspection of arms at ten and went to here our new preacher at eleven. Levi was so he could go to here him preach. He spoke very well and in couriageing. He was the first one that preached to us since we left Louisvill except the mager once. He is going to be with us now as long as health permits he says. He is an old man and speaks incouriageing. I received a letter from the neighborhood mailed the tenth stating that you was well excepting bad cold. I got levi some sasafras to make tee which I think will be good for us. It grows here. I took severe misery in my head and had a high fever nearly all knight. Their was 5 went to the hospitle out of our mess at the other camp and their was 6 when I took sick and one well besides my self in our mess and I think likely I over don my self.

15th I was very bad it comenced raining after dinner and rained nearly all knight.

16th the regt was called in line before day for fere of an

[Again his narrative breaks off here in the middle of a sentence at the bottom of a page of the note paper. We have no more till January 2nd. The memoranda book with the original was also lost, in later years. At the end of December the Regiment along with the rest of Rosecrans' army was engaged in the Battle of Murfreesboro. The confederates under General Bragg were driven back to a new position early in January.]



[JANUARY 2nd, 1863] ииииииииииии planted there the largest I ever saw. Wounded men are coming in town every day.

3rd it has rained all day tolerable hard. We are siting in the tent and are scarce of provision and no chance of cooking what we have it rains so. We can traid our coffey and sugar for pies and bread at the bakery shop. It is close to our camp. At about 8 Oclock at knight they came and called us to get our guns and fall in line and we went through the rain and mud through town and went to the entrenchments and we stood in the rain some time and then went to the tents wet as we could be. The talk was that the rebbels was goying to attack us.

Sunday the 4th it cleared off and was warm but mudy. I have not hered from Levi since he left me. I think of him a great deal. I dont know but what he is killed or wounded. I was ast if I was able to go to the regt. I am not for I am two week to do duty yet.

5th I had to go a foriegeing. I roade there and back but it made me very week and soar.

6th it rained last knight. The word came that fight was over at Merphies Burry and our waggons was ordered to bring the tents and cooking utencils. It is very wet and disagreable here. The wagons came back. I was buisy all day waiting on Philop Shoonmier. He was from Indianapolis. A dutch boy. He wanted to sleep with Levi and me when he came in the mes. And he wanted me to wait on him allways when he was sick. He took very bad last knight and suffered a great deal. He called for me all day when he wanted anything. I wated on him as weal as I could and as if he was my brother. I don my best to get him to the hospitol but there was so many wounded coming in that there was not room then and I knew that he could not live long from what the docter said in the morning when I went after Medison for him. At knight when we lit the light I could not get him to speak. He was insensible of what was goying on. I had to get in bead with him for we allways slept to gether. The other boys went to bead. It was very cold. I could not sit up. And I layed down and watched him in the face while the candle shun in his face. And he roald his eyes around and groaned. And I looked for the last breath but he did not get his discharge till between midnight and day, then he had been cold for over an hour and his jaws set. He groaned till the last breath so you could here him from our house to the barn. I got up and called the boys up and we layed him out of the tent. I felt lonesome laying watching for the last breath. You can draw a faint ideah of my feelings but that is all. You dont believe how I hated to lay with him. I slept after we got don laying him out.

7th the wagons left this morning again. There was over 600 rebbles came in yesterday the paper stated.

8th the rebbles fixed the track so that the cars would run off. And when they run off they burned the engin and one car.

9th I was detailed to go to guard a bridge and went as far as the depo and was not needed and was sent back It rained in the knight and I was not well.

10th I am better this morning. It has cleared off and is a nice day only it is mudy.

11th Sunday it was a beautiful day. I got lonsom and tierd staying here and I sewed my close and fixed to go to the regt.

l2th Still warm and nice. I had no chance to go to the regt. I will give the prices of some things here. The price of flowr is $15.00 per bbl coffey 40cts pr lb shuger 40 cts pr lb beef 15 cts pr lb pork 15 cts pr lb butter 9 50 cts pr lb Egges 50 cts pr doz. Meel $1.00 pr bu good big pies 20 cts a pie chees. 40 cts pr lb ginger bread about 5 cts a bite large Jenithen apples 10 cts an apple. 4 onions 10 cts sweet potatoes $5.00 pr bu Irish potatoes $4.00 pr bu. dried peaches $5.00 pr bu dried apples $4.00 pr bu whiskey $4.00 pr gal beer 5 cts pr glass calico from 30 to 40 cts pr yd molases $2.00 pr gal lard 16 3/4 cts pr lb.

13th we was all called in line and the docter examined to see who was able to go to the regt. He said I had better rest a while yet. Soldiers are coming in today on the cars and artilery.

14th it rained hard all day. We set in our tents around a little stove that the boys hooked. And lived on water and bread. And I had to go out often and was not well. I was put on guard and it rained so hard they told us we might go to our tents till it quit raining but it did not stop. It rained till after midnight and then it snowed and hailed fine hail as hard as it could dash.

15th it is hailing fine hail and is awful slashy. About noon it comensed snowing and snowed till knight and it snowed some in the knight.

16th there was a cold wind and it snowed a little all day fine snow but it was two cold to snow much. I went to the river to draw rations for the quartermaster. The river raised 15 feet the citizens said and they said if their had not bin so much water on the ground it would have been the bigest snow they ever seen at Nashville. We drawed 2 loafs of bread for 3 days to the man and a nough beef for 3 days. One man can eat it in a day and 3 table spoonfuls of shuger for 3 days and other things in proportion. It made us think of old Indiana, to see this kind of wether here.

17th it was a cold night last knight. It cleared off in the knight and the sun shines and melts a little.

18th Sunday it was tolerable warm and the streets is like a sheet of ice and is thawed on top a little. I went to the river. There was 14 boats there. 2 of them was gunboats. Soldiers came up and artilery. I wrote a letter to levi today and put it in the office. We got a little fresh pork. It tasts old fashioned.

19th it has clouded up and gon to raining. It rained all day and knight.

20th it is fogy and still thawing. It rained a little.

21st the snow is all gon and it is cool and cloudy and mudy.

22nd it is not very cloudy. The mud is beginning to settle.

23rd it clouded up in the evening and rained a little. Cap Ellis came in from the regt and said that Levi was fat and harty. That was good news to me. I traided my coffey for a pie and my suger for 4 small apples.

24th it commenced raining in the morning and rained harder and harder all day. I was detailed to go on guard and when I was off I washed some clothes and dried them the best I could last knight. We hooked enough wood to heat my wash water and to cook a fiew days out of a mans yard. And we have to wash whenever we get a chance whether the weather is nice or not. It rained all day and often on all knight.

25th Sunday I received a letter from Levi and one from home in it. It don me good to read them. We was examined and I was one to go to the regt.

26th I was up at half past three oclock and got ready to go to the regt. And we started out of town at 10 oclock. The train of wagons was several miles long. There was several hundred wagons in the train. They had an awful time brakeing wagons and upseting the pike was fool of deap chuckholes. It commenced raining and rained harder. And at dark we came to levern [Lavergne] and the wagon master told me to try to get in an empty house out of the rain. That knight I got in a house with some cavelry. And I was wet through. I dried myself and slept a little.

27th it was snowing and cold and I eat and started and it quit snowing. I got with vancleevs head quarter teams and came to camp and I got my napsack halled a part of the way. I road 6 miles. We got to camp at merfreesboro at about 4 oclock. Levi was in the tent sick with the dioreah1. We was glad to meet each other. At dark it comenced snowing and was a cold knight. It did not snow much.


1He learned later in the war to spell diarrhea.


28th Levi is tolerable sick and he got medison. It beat any thing how the trees was toreup on the battle field ground and the dead horses layed thick around over the ground and the graves was thick around over the ground. I got a letter from home brought by Stanton to Nashville and the one from James. I thought of James birth day for it was his birth day. I was glad to here that he was geting along so well.

29th I got our socks and mits. They will come good for it is cold here now. I saw milo McIlvain and Jackson Calvin.

30th we was ordered out on picket at 1 oclock. The picket lines was moved out further that knight. We had a cold knight to stand.

31st we was relieved after dinner and went to camp.



Sunday the 1st day of February we was ordered in line with one days rations and guns and acuterments. And it was raining. We went about one mile from camp and they had thousands of shuvels and lots of picks and axes for us to work with. And we went to work to throw up a fort. And we worked 2 hours and then the others relieved us and we rested 2 hours. They are throwing up very strong forts. The bank is 16 ft wide and 6 ft high and ditch on the outside where we dig for the dirt for the bank, was 12 ft wide and 6 ft deep. And we went to camp before dark and it quit raining. The plase where we fortifyed is a nole and the serounding country is level and we can have a long range on the rebs. It is very rich nice land here. And the buildings in this part of the world are the finest finished houses that I ever saw and large houses but very fiew barns.

2nd we built a chimney and pitched a tent and went in it. We went on dressperaid at four oclock. It was a cold knight.

3rd it was about as cold a day as I have seen in Tenn. I was corporal of the guard and it was a cold time for guarding.

4th my relief went on post at revelee. And we had orders to go on picket at 10 oclock. We went and at knight it cormnenced snowing. And Levi and I went and carried shucks and piled them on the ground and pooled plank off ove the fence and mad a shed and layed in the shucks and layed warm. And after a while it was part rain. And my relief was to go on at 7 oclock. And another company went on in our place and so my relief did not go on post till daylight.

5th still snowing a little. And our mes got at a box in an old stable and got crouder pees and huld out about a peck and carried them to camp. They will do us a good while and we coocked some for supper and had drawed flower and molases. And we made biscuit and we had a fine. There is only five stays in our tent. And we ceap the company commissary. Sargent Wm. F. McIlvain and Thomas McIlvain and Jeremiah Foley and Levi and my self messes together. We have orders to go out a foriageing to morow. It is snowing a little and is very windy.

6th it cleared of in the knight and froze the ground hard. We got up at about 3 oclock and prepared for to go out a foriageing. We started at daylight and went to the pike and loaded our guns and went out on the Lebanon pike and went out about 6 miles to Stoney river. And it was very werisom walking for the pike was like ice. When we got to Stoney river we could not cross. And we turned to the left and went about 2 miles and the teams drove in the fields and commenced loading. And we was ordered to go out on picket while they loaded. And part of our mess was on post and the rest got some sheap hemed in a corner of a fence and I caut one. And one of another mes and I dressed it and devided it. And then our mess put it in our haversacks and was soon called to start to camp and we went to the road and stoped and one of our mess and another went and got another sheep and put it in a wagon and had it halled to camp and we got half of it which mad us one whole sheep to our mess. As we came in to camp the pike was thawed and was slashy and tiersom walking. We got in camp at about 4 oclock and eat supper and are ready to go to bead now.

7th we rested all day and I put my time in at writing the most of the time. And in the evening we received orders to get three days rations in our haversacks and be ready to march at half past five O'clock. We expect to guard a wagon train to Nashville provision.

8th we was up and eat breakfast and formed line and marched to Merfreesboro and got in the wagons till daylight and then we went to Nashville till about 3 or 4 o'clock. The mules was not watered nor fed and it is 30 or 32 miles. We was marched to the court house. And we went up to the 3rd flore and stact guns in the room which was something near 80 ft squair and eat supper and maid our beads and slept nice all knight

9th we run around through town and went to the boat landing. And Levi and I saw the Steam boat called Jacops Strater and it was the nicest and largest boat I ever saw. They said it was 300 feet long. There was 20 or 30 thousand troops came up to nashville and a train of 60 boats they said. And we traided our suger for 10 apples and some candy and we went up in the state house and went out at the top of the cupelo and it was a great sight and we could see so far. The State house is said to be 300 feet high to the top of the flag pole. Then we went to the convelesant camp and saw the boys that was sick and got another blanket. And we drawed some soft bread and pickeled beef and got supper and layed down and slept till 3 oclock.

10th and then we eat and got ready to start to Murfreesboro with the train which was loaded and strung out on the pike for miles. We went through the mud as it had rained that knight and had an awful time geting through the mud. Some wagons upset and mules drop dead and us goying sloping in the mud over ancle deep. We stoped at Levern and it comenced raining and we built a fier and throwed some cedar up for to turn the rain and put down two blankets and three coats and then three blankets over us and a gum over us and layed down and went to sleep as well as I used to at home under feathers but it rained nearly all knight. And we got a little wet in places. And the

11th we got up and started at daylight and marched a while and I put my napsack in a waggon and Levis for they was wet and heavy. And we did not go much further till we stoped and layed for some hours. And we could not tell what was the matter till the news came that we was wating for some pontoon bridges which was stalled and could not keep up with the train. And we wated till dark. They did not come and we had no rations. And the coln sent the Ajatant to the wagons to get suger coffey and pork and crackers. And we had a nice time. We layed down and slept till the

12th at 4 o'clock the drum beat for us to get ready and we eat breakfast and got in line and started and marched at quick time. And it drizzled rain and at last it got reinforcement and pored down hard and then it drizzled rain nearly all the time and we got to the river and we crost in a flat boat. And we found the cars had came to the bridge. And they will soon come in from Murfreesboro. And we got to camp at about noon we was mudy and wet and hungry and the boys had dinner ready. We washed and eat and felt better. And there was one of Co. Ks men died and after a prays from our old grayheaded Chaplain and a fiew words of exertation they burried him. He was sick but a short time. He had the dioreah. His name was Ebeneezer Grapham. We all feel very sore after our trip. We had fun a nough to pay us for our trip. We past through part of the battle ground and saw trees thicker than my body tore clear off at from 10 to 25 feet from the ground with cannon balls.

13th we rested all day. It was a nice day. I washed some cloth for Levi and myself and put the rest of my time in at writing in the evening. I drawed an oil blanket which will be a great help in time of rain or snow.

14th we had orders to go out on picket at __o'clock and we got ready and went. And we was on the reserv and we took our gum blankets and made a shead to sleep under. And it commenced raining and Levi thought he was taking the mumps and the Colonel lett him go to camp. And we had a very rainy night but did not get wet. Our foriage train was atacted but the rebs had to scedaddled without acomplishing their desiers.

Sunday the 15th it was very cool and we was relieved at 10 o'clock and went to camp and at about 10 o'clock at knight the long rool was blowed and we was called in line in a fiew minutes and stood for some time. And we stact guns and we stayed wating for further orders and we received orders to go to our quarters and lay on our arms that knight we went to bead and slept nice all knight.

16th we have orders to get our guns cleen for inspection. And when we got them cleen they had no inspection. And I was detailed to go and chop wood. And we choped a while and it rained. And the teams did not come and we went to camp. And it rained on till knight and rained all knight.

17th it stoped raining after daylight. And Levi was detailed to chop wood. I put my time in at writing. And we had a very nice dressparaid in the evening. And it commenced raining and rained all knight. And the

18th it was still raining when we got up. But we are still working for uncle Sam at the same price per day rain or shine. And so we was ordered to get ready for picket at 10 o'clock. We got ready and waided the water and mud about 3 miles to the picket lines and it was still raining. And I was put on guard and stood 2 hours. And then I was relieved. And I was corporal of one relief. It continues to rain often on all after noon the picket lines was moved out again. And we was ordered not to have any fier after knight and we was ordered not to sleep. I stood 2 hours at midnight and we was all kept up. I layed down at day brake to sleep and slept a little nap.

19th it was windy and the clouds was broken. And it looked like we was goying to have a nice time if it did not rain soon. We was relieved at 11 o'clock and it misted rain at times. We went to camp. It was very windy. And we had dressparaid and then drawed 8 days rations. And it continued very windy all knight. And the mud settled fast.

20th we poleesed the quarters in the morning. And had orders to get ready for General inspection provided the inspecter come. We was ready but the inspecter did not come. We had dressparaid. I put the most of my time in at writing. I was not very well all knight.

2lst we had orders to go on picket at l0 o'clock. And the docter said I should not go on picket till I got better shooes. I stayed in camp and boiled some humeny. It comenced raining about noon and rained very heard all day. And the water run like a flood over the ground.

Sunday the 22nd it was very cool all day. The boys was relieved at about 11 o'clock and come into camp and I had a nice mess of beens and humany cooked for them. After dinner I wrote and we had dressparaid and there was a nice peace read concerning Washington for it was his birth day. And Rosecrans ordered the peace to be red to every company of the army of the Cumberland and that one batery of every devision should fier at sun down and they fiered and it sounded like claps of thunder far and near. And the brass bands was playing. And it got colder all the time. And at knight it froze the ground hard and we kept a fier all knight to ceap warm.

23rd it was cool. I went and choped wood and got back at 2 o'clock. And we drilled and had dressparaid and at knight we had orders to get ready for foriage the next day at 6 o'clock.

24th we was ready at 6. But we did not get started till after 7 o'clock. I went in the wagon and we went 6 miles to Stoney river and could not cross and we turned to the left and went 7 miles and drove in great big corn fields and loaded and then we went back. And we had to walk to the pike it was so mudy. I did not get to foriage any for my self. Only I got a good drink of sweet milk and it was anough to make me think of home. And I got a fiew turnups. We got to camp after dark awhile and was very tiered and wery. We eat supper and went to bead.

25th it was a nice morning. The sun shone nice. And the spring birds was singing their noats of joy and meriment. I thought I would wash some close and I washed 2 shirts and 2 pair of drawers and a pair of pence and socks. And till I got them hung up it comenced raining and thundering and I had to take the close in. And it continued to rain hard till knight. And then it checked up raining a while. And the boys choped wood for over knight. And then it comenced raining again and rained hard all knight and our tent got very damp. And on the

26th it still rained hard all day. I put the most of my time in at reading and at writing. The water is running down the branches till they are several hundred yards wide. And later in the evening it stoped raining. And the axes just went clit clat all over the camp. And in a fiew minits it was stoped by having orders to get ready for dress parade. We was soon formed for dress parade. And there was orders read to the effect that we had to get up at revelee which was to sound at 5 o'clock in the morning and in 15 minuts we have to be in line of battle on the paraid ground. And the roal is to be called and if any officers or privats are not present they are to be reported except excused by the docter. And we are to stand till daylight. The other orders was that our regt was to furnish 23 privets and 5 non comisionate and one comisionet officer for picket. And they are to report at 8 o'clock. The detail will not take more than about 2 out of our company a day. After these orders we was dismist and went in our tents and it rained a little through the knight.

27th revelee was sounded at 5 P. [A] M. and we was in line in a fiew minute and stood till daylight and then we was dismised and eat breakfast. And Levi was detailed to chop wood. And we poleesed the quarters. And I put my time in at reading when I was not buisy. We drilled 2 hours in the afternoon. After dark I was ordered to take my gun and rig and report as corperal of the camp guard for the corporal took sick.

28th it was raining a little in showers. I was relieved at 9 A. M. And we was mustered for pay at 1 P. M. And had sined the parole [pay roll?] on the 25th. Levi was detailed for guard. We drawed rations. It rained afternoon threw the knight and turned a little cooler.



March the 1st day it was cool and the clouds broken. It was Sunday and I washed 4 shirts and washed myself for inspection. And I remembered that I was 21 yers of age that day. And I reflected back one year and thought of the place where I was and of what had happened in the past year and wandered what might become of me before the 1st day of March A. D.. 1864. Levi and I went to a flour garden and plucked some flowers to send home. There has bin flowers here two weeks ago.

2nd it was a nice day all day. We drilled 1 and a half hours in the foornoon.

3rd it is cool. Levi was detailed for picket. I wayed 168 lbs and Levi 146 [196?] lbs. It spit snow a little and got colder all day. We drilled. We got a weekly Indianapolas paper and a daily and I read in them. It cleared of at knight and the ground froze.

4th it clouded up early in the morning and spit snow. We drilled in the four noon and after noon. And the orders are to have role call five times a day. We had dress parade. Levi was relieved from picket. It was a cold knight.

5th the ground was froze very heard. I gave 25 cts for 6 eggs and fried them for breakfast and Levi and I had a fine breakfast. Levi was detailed to go a foriageing and I to go on picket. Levi got back after knight. I stood 2 hours in the knight. And at midnight there was a large fier out west. We got strict orders to be on our look out for rebbs. It was a cool knight. The wind past over the forests and plains of Tenn. very fast and it was dissagreable standing picket. The regt was payed a month and a half. And Levi and I was out on duty and did not get any money. It rained a little at times.

6th we got to camp at 10 A. M. and it went to raining. There was one of Co. Cs men droped dead. We got payed $20.80 a peace and look for more soon.

7th we drilled. I put my time in at writing. We went on dress paraid in the evening and the orders was to be ready to march at all times for a forward movement was expected soon. It rained and hailed in the knight as heard as I ever heared it.

8th Sunday it was very weet. Levi was detailed for picket. We had a splendid breakfast of corn and wheat bread and molases and picle pork. We signed the paroles and at about 1 P.M. we was called in line to here the Chaplain preach. He preached from the 12th verse and 14th Chapter of Romans. He spoke well and heart touching. It made me think of times at home. And his closing words caused the tears to come in my eyes, to look around as we used to at home to see Father, Mother Brothers and Sisters and to go home together. But lo they was not here. No women nor children to be seen but all dressed in blue and they looked solemn and brave and steadfast in the speakers face while he adressed us (as you have seen no doubt in some picture before this time). When we was dissmissed we went to our tents in silence. And we had dressparade. And we had an election in our regt to elect five men from every Company to the role of honor. Theas men are to be mounted and go out on scouts and foriageing and act as Generals Escorts. They was to be the bravest and stoutest and the ones that did not flinch in the battle. And they wanted Levi to go and he told them not to vote for him. I recon he did not want to leave me. He would have liked it firstrate if I would not have been with him. They would have elected him if there would have bin 6 and then he would have had to gon anyhow. They elected James P Johnson Samuel Wilson, Ezry Hicks, Joseph Drybread, Wm Mitchel out of our Co.

9th when we was eating breakfast we was ordered to strike tents and get ready to march. And we did not leave till after dinner and then we marched out on the Lebanon pike to Stoney river and stoped to guard some pontoon bridges. I was not very well. I had a severe diareah. And Levi came in of ove picket and was in the same fix. We camped on peble hill, where James Knox Polk use to go to school when he was a little boy in a log house. And I believe on the map Stoney river is called Bare Waller. We was ordered not to pitch tents and the mules was not ---?---. And the Artilery was not to be unhitched. And in the knight it comenced raining and rained all knight. Levi and I was detailed to guard a waggon. We got weet.

10th it rained nearly all day. And there was a church near the teems. And the boys took all the cealing of one of the sides and overhead and all the weatherboarding. Even the gevel ends and part of the floor to make sheads to sleep under. And they cut the sleepers in two and built fiers in the house. Levi and I stayed there all day and all knight. It continued to rain all knight and cleared of in the morning of the

11th and looked nice overhead. And Levi went on picket and it was a splendid day. I got 2 letters. They was encouriageing. We got our flour baked in biscuits. We pitched our tent. It was cool in the evening and it was cool all knight.

12th it clouded up in the morning but did not stay cloudy very long till it cleared off and the sun shun warm. And the lambs blayed on the green grass. We got payed for two month. And Levi and I sent $51. dollars home.*


*No entry for the 13th, but it seems to have been combined with the 12th.



March the 14th A.D.1863. it was very cool in the morning but after the sun raised it was warm enough to give every one the spring fever. We drilled in the four noon and after noon..

15th it was Sunday and I was detailed for picket. And it was a splendid day. And I acted corporal of the guard till I got so sick that I had to go to camp and the orderly got me a powder, and that cooled the fever a little.

16th I was a little better. The docter gave me 5 pils. Levi was relieved from picket. We had orders to strike tents and get ready to move camp. And we moved about two hundred yards and pitched tents in regular stile. It was a splended day...

17th I was still better. I got some medison. We had orders to get ready for General inspection at 2 o'clock. We was ready for inspection. And part of the regt was inspected. I did not rest so very well at knight.

18th I got some more medison . Levi went on picket. It comenced raining about dinner time. And it soon cleared of and did not rain much. A. E. Irwin came to the regt at knight. We went in a tent and had a fime singing. We sang old songs and enjoyed the evening firstrate.

19th we was out on drill and was called in to get dinner at 11.A.M. and strike tents amediatly after dinner and when we got the tents and things loaded we got our napsacke haweled and we went back near Murfreesboro. The sun shone warm and the pike was very dusty. And the peach bloom was in fool bloom. And the plumb is nearly in bloom. Levi and I got two hogs feet and two fish and a pound of butter and we had a fine time. Just as we stoped and was forming our ground for camp the colonels horse got his Martingails fast and it pooled him back and he fell clear over on the Colonel with his whole weight. We expected he was badly hurt. He was not severly hurt.

20th it had rained somewhere and turned cooler. I was detailed for picket. The boys was all buisy poleesing the quarters and ditching the camp. I took a squad of 9 men and went to the out post and we stood on out post. And we saw four rebs riding from a house and at knight the darkies came to the lines and stated the case and wanted in our lines. There was fifteen of them and they came in. And I did not get to sleep but 2 hours. It was very windy.

21st we was relieved and went to camp and we prepaired our guns for General inspection and after inspection we went on dressparaid.

22nd Sunday we had inspection at 10 A.M. And preaching at 2 P.M. And dressparaid in the evening. Levi went on picket.

March the 23rd A. D. 1863. Levi was relieved from picket and we had General inspection and we had the cleenest guns I think that we ever had. It drizled rain a little in the evening. We drawed blowses. Our cousin heared where we was and came to see us. He is on General Mortin's escort. He was in the battle and escaped and did not get hurt.

24th we drilled in the four noon. And it rained nearly all after noon and all knight. There was a detail made to work on the rifle pits.

25th it rained. Levi was detailed to work on the rifle pits we are fortyfying here very strong and prepairing to meet the atack which is expected soon.

26th it was a very cool morning. Levi went on Camp guard. I went and got my miniture taken. They drilled. We had dressparaid. There was an election and Simon More was elected Sutler for the 79th regt.

27th it was a rite cool morning. I was detailed to go on the rifle pits. All I had to do was to watch the guns and haversacks. And see that they kept the sides of the entrenchment strait. There is troops formed in a four squair around town. And the side that we are on is 2 or 3 miles long. And they are diging rifle pits about 3/4 or 1 mile from camp all around town. Levi was relieved from guard. It comenced raining about noon and drizled nearly all after noon. And in the knight it rained as heard as it could pour it down and thundered and lightened and stormed. And some tents blew down and others the water run in under the boys and weet their beds. And they had to get up and seak shelter in some other tents. And it rained nearly all knight.

28th at 4 o'clock in the morning is when revelee blowed. And we could hardly find room enough to form a line of battle without geting in the water. I was detailed Corporal of the camp guard. Iit turned very cold and windy.

29th Sunday I was relieved at 1/2 past 8 o'clock. We had Co. inspection. It was a cold raw wind all day and knight. We drawed little tents just large enough for two to sleep in. We call them dog tents.

30th it was still cold and we drilled in the fournoon. And Levi and I went and got our Minitures taken to send home. It drizzled rain and snow in the evening. We went to dressparaid.

31st it cleared off in the knight and was frosty and very windy. I sent our minitures home. We drilled in the fournoon. Levi was detailed for camp guard. I washed some clothing. We drilled and had dressparade.



April the 1st A.D. 1863 it was a splended day. I was detailed for picket. Levi was relieved of one(?) camp guard.

2nd I was relieved from picket. We drilled in the afternoon and went on dressparade. I wrote a letter. I w to Father which is as follows...........

3rd it was a cool morning but it soon got warm when the sun rose. Levi was detailed for camp guard. It was very winday all day. We drilled in the after noon and went on dressparade.

4th Levi was relieved. It was a splendid day. Levi and I got a pass and to go to General Mortens head quarters to see Cosen William. And we went through town and in the fort and saw the houtsers [howitzers] that take a 8 inch shell and the 18 foot seege guns and a great many others. And the stolk ades were nearly don. We came back to camp and signed the paroles and had dressparade.

5th Sunday we had Co inspection. And then preaching at 11 o'clock A.M. And it was a beautiful day. All looked chereful except the destruction of the army. Had dressparade.

6th Levi was detailed for camp guard. We rested all day. It was splended wether. We had a good rest from duty one day anyhow.

7th Levi was relieved from guard. I was detailed for picket and at half past 1 P.M. we was reinforced on picket and had very strict orders. And the officers of the picket came around and examined the posts. They allways found my post all rite. I slept nearly one hour.

8th it was a very cool morning but after the sun rose it was a very warm day. That is the climate here. Cool nights warm days. I went to camp at about 10 A.M. We had dress parade.

9th Levi was detailed for guard. 4 men and I took our guns and went with a wagon out side of the picket lines after some cedars. We dug them up and planted them in our street for shade. We got 14 for our company. We drilled in the afternoon and had dressparade.

10th Levi was relieved. We drilled in the fournoon. We was relieved. Mustered for pay at 1 P.M. And Wm. F. McIlvain and I got some greens. And James Hague helped cook and eat them. We had dressparade.

11th I was detailed for guard. The company was ordered to wash and cleen their guns and at 4 P.M. had dressparade. And at dark I had my little dog tent pitched and ditched around it. And it rained very hard at 8 A.M. And we got orders to go to our tents.

12th we went on guard at revelee and was relieved at 8 A.M. And then we had to get ready for General Inspection at 2 P.M. Our capt got a brush and shoe blackening and had us to blacken our shoes. And the boys got shirt colers and we had cleen guns and made a nice apperance. General Beaty was at the inspection and his lady. And an other lady from Ohio was there. We had dressparade.

13th Levi was detailed for picket. I washed my clothing. The company drilled one hour. And then the noncomisioned officers drilled 1 hour and 2 hours in the afternoon. We had dressparade. There was a nice shower of rain fell in the knight.

14th Levi was relieved from picket. The noncomist officers drilled 2 hours. Colonel Knefler drils us. And at about noon it comenced raining and rained till time for dressparade. We had dressparade.

15th it was drizzling rain. I was detailed for picket. It drizzled rain all day and nearly all knight. I got to sleep some in the morning.

16th we was relieved at 11 A.M. and went to camp. And the brigade had gon out on a scout and did not know when they would get back. We had nothing then to do. I received 2 letters.

17th it was a clear day and nice. We hered that the regt had only gon to the Stones river. I was called on to get a squad of men and guard some comesary goods. And I did not get to sleep till after 2 in the morning, and was waked up at -- A.M. and was relieved at 11:00.

18 I wanted to go to the regt but I could not. And the Colonel sent word for us to stay in camp. It is very warm. I got some greens. I put my time in at reading and writing the rest came in at 8 o'clock at knight.

19th Sunday it had rained at knight. And we had inspection and it comenced raining at about noon. And at 3 P.M. we got orders to be ready to march at a moments warning. They had comensed paying the regt then. We got ready and was payed 26. dollars. And a little before dark the orders was countermanded. And we slept all knight. I supose the rebs had atacted our picket lines.

20th it was a nice morning. Levi was detailed for Camp guard. The noncomish officers drilled. We had dressparade.

21st Levi was relieved from camp guard. We put our over coats in a box to send to Franklin. We drilled. It rained in the evening and in the knight.

22nd it was a wet morning but it turned out to be a nice day. I went to the express office to express our box of coats and it was so crowded that I did not get it marked till nearly 5 o'c. And Levi was with me and we bought $8.00 worth of apples and eat as many as we could stuff down and then sold them so as to get what we eat for nothing. And then we bought $1.50 worth of rush [or, reish? Radish?] and brough them to camp and sold them all but our supper. And made about 80 cts.

23rd we elected a Co. cook to cook for our Co. And made a table and covered it with dog tents And we eat all together. Levi went on picket and I took a squad of men and don foriageing duty. And we drilled batallion drill in the afternoon.

24th Levi was relieved from picket. I perchest a watch. And in the afternoon Levi was asleep and was waked up to go on batallion drill and he mised his pocket book and money and had not found it. He lost $16. We went on dressparade after batallion drill and there was orders read that we should get in line at revelee which will be sounded at 5 A.M. and form the batallion and have role call and inspect the guns and accuterments and then go back to the quarters. And the bugle is to sound at certain times for all the different duties.

25th I did not see any chance to get Levi's money and gave it up for lost. I spoke to the Lieutenant. He said he did not see any chance. I think I know who got it. I was detailed for camp guard. The regt had orders to wash all their clothing. And they had orders to come out on dressparade with their shoes blackened. And they made a nice apperance on dressparade.

26th Sunday I was relieved. Levi was detailed and went on camp guard. It was very warm. We had Inspection. I put the most of my time in at reading and writing. We had dressparade. And one private of company A was convicted to carry a 24 pound ball 10 days for leeving his post when on guard and geting drunk.

27th it drizzled rain a little. And Levi was relieved from camp guard. We drilled company drill. Our orderly went to Franklin on a 20 days furlow. We drilled batalion drill in the afternoon and had dressparade. It rained a little nearly all knight.

28th we had orders to take down our big tents and put up our pup tents and then the order was countermanded. We drilled Co drill in the fournoon and batallion drill in the afternoon. And had dressparade. We hered that brag was killed by his own men. I hope it is true. It rained some durin the knight.

29th it was a splendid morning. The sun shone brite and warm. I washed some clothing. Levi was detailed for picket.


this is the 29th. We are all -- this morning. I have not had a letter from home for a week. I look for one today. I will send a card with the picturs of the cooking vesels which the officers use

from Wm H Huntzinger


The bugle blowed to strike tents. And we struck tents. And was ordered to pitch our shelter tents. And we pitched them 4 times before we got them to soot the officers. And we just got don and it comenced raining and rained nearly all day. There is 3 men to the tent now. Levi and James Hague and I are in one. We had dressparade and had orders read to fast and pray on the 30th. For that was ordered by the president.

30th the regt set out cedars trees all through the camp. We was ordered to get ready for General Inspection and to be mustered at 2 P.M. The colonel went and got a lot of shoe blackening and destribeted it amongst us. And we used it freely. We got ready and was inspected and mustered for pay at 2 P.M. We made a nice apperance. We had dressparade.



May the 1st A.D. 1863 it was a beautiful morning. The rules and regulations of the army of the Cumberland may be different to others. So I will state the duty of the pickets. The pickets call is at half past seven A.M. Then they fall in line and count off. And the squad consists of a detail from each company and one lieutenant and one sargent and 3 or 4 corporals. And they march to brigad headquarters. And the detail from each regt forms together and marches to devision head quarters and load guns. And there the whole detail from the whole devision forms and devides off in four squads and goes to each station. There is 4 stations. And each station has from 1 to 3 posts and each outposts sends out from 3 to 5 centenals. I will mark it out.



OUR DEVISION PICKET LINE IS ABOUT 2 MILES LONG AND THE DUTY OF THE LIEUTENANTS is to go to the pike and examine the pases. And one Lieutenant and a sargent to each station and a corporal takes a squad of men and goes to the out posts and then places his centenals and relieve the others. And he relieves every 2 hours for 6 hours. And then another squad comes from the station and relieves them. And then they go to the station and stay 6 hours. And then they go out and stay 6 again. And then they are relieved by another detail. The duty of the corporal is to visit the centenals once between each 2 hours. And he is to take the names of all of his men. And they are to stay with their guns in hands or close by. And if 1 or more horsemen approaches they are to stand in line at a sholder arms till they come close enough to talk to them and find out whether they are friends or not. And then brake ranks. And when eny thing happens out at the centenals the corporal calls the men in line and at a shoalder arms. And go out to see what is up and if any squad of rebs comes we must retreat (after fiering enough to give the alarm) to the station. And there we can hold them long enough for the force of calvery to come to help.


we drilled company drill in the fournoon and batallion in the afternoon and had dressparade.

2nd Levi was detailed to picket. The regt was told to wash their clothing. We drilled batallion dril in the afternoon and had dressparade. It rained a little in the knight.

3rd Sunday we poleeced which we do every day. And we had co inspection at 10 A.M. Levi was relieved from picket. And him and James Hague brought in some greens and we had a nice mess. We had dressparade. And at knight we sang. It drizled rain a little in the night.

4th it was a nice morning. And I was detailed for camp guard. And Levi was detailed to go to Stones river to guard Some artilery there and come back. And there was there was thunder storms all afternoon. And the boys are buisy changing the camp a little. There was dressparade. It rained nearly all knight.

5th I was relieved from camp guard. It rained a little through the day. The boys dug ditches through the whole brigade. We had dressparade. And the order was read for 4 extry men to be detailed every morning. And 4 of the most soldiery looking is to be excused from duty and have a pass to go enewhere inside of the picket line.

6th it was raining and was very cold rain. And mist all day we had dressparade. It rained nearly all knight.

7th it rained all day. Levi was detailed to go with the teams after cedars. And we set 2 rows of cedars on each side of the street clear through the brigade which looks nice. I put my time in at reading. It rained nearly all knight.

8th still cold and cloudy and drizling. Levi was detailed for picket. It cleared off at noon and was very nice concidering the cite of rain. We had dressparade.

9th it was a splendid day. I washed a big washing. Levi was relieved of ove picket. We had dressparade.

10th Sunday A splendid day in dead. I went to a funeral at 9 A.M. And hered a splendid exertation by the chaplain. The deceased was a christian. His name was John H Pearson. The Chaplain said he was afflicted a long time and bore his afflictions with christian pations. He was buried in the honors of war.

We had inspection at 10 A.M. and dressparade at 5 P.M. And the ord was read that Sargent William F. McIlvain should be reduced to the ranks for leeving camp in the morning of the 9th and staying away till after dressparade without leaf.

11th Levi was detailed for picket . We cet out some more ceaders. I put my time in at writing. We had dressparade.

12th I was detailed for picket. And Levi was relieved. I was on the first relief and in a grassy and shady grove which made it a nice thing for us. We had to ceap our guns in hand or by our side all the time. And we did not sleep any.

13th we was relieved and got in camp at 11 A.M. and had General Inspection at 3 P.M. and went on brigade drill at 5 and drilled till 7 P.M. And it drizled rain. And our brigade had drilled from 6 to 8 A.M. that morning. It tryes our botom to drill so and not get any sleep when on picket. We got 4 letters. It rained nearly all knight.

14th we fixed our tents higher and rounded up our streets. And at 3 P.M. we fell in and drilled batallion drill a while and then brigade drill till half past 7 P.M.

15th Levi was relieved from camp guard. We drilled co. drill and poleeced all fournoon and at 3 P.M. went out and drilled brigade drill till 6 P.M. And then we had dressparade.

16th we drilled fro 5 till 6 A.M. batallion and then we eat breakfast and set out ceaders and took up the old ones and poleeced the whole camp. And I don a larg washing and it was a very hot day. We had dressparaid.

17th Sunday Levi was detailed for camp guard and was excused at guard montdt(?) for having everything cleen and making the most soldierly apperance. We had co inspection at 10 A.M. I put my time in at writing. We had dressparade.

18th we drilled before breakfast. I was detailed for picket and acted in sargents place. I saw wheat in a field headed out nice. We had strict orders and 2 guns fiered in our picket lines. And they fiered at 2 saddled horses. We went out to the out post at 9 A.M. at knight [sic] And I stood till 4 P.M. without siting down.

19th we was relieved at 10 A.M. and we came in camp. And the regt had drilled 3 time in the fournoon. And brigade drill at 3 to 6 P.M. and had dressparade.

20th Levi was detailed for picket. And we drilled as usual. I got a pass and went to the 22nd regt Ind. and saw both of my old acquaintance. And I came back at 1 P.M. and we drilled brigade drill in the afternoon and had dressparade.

21st we drilled before breakfast. And the sick from each devision was sent off to the General field hospitle. And a march is expected soon or a battle. Our men took a fiew rebs in front. Levi was relieved. And we drilled from 9 to 10 A.M. And eat supper at 5 P.M. And had dressparade and drilled till sundown.

22nd we drilled before breakfast. And had orders to get ready for General Review and we got ready but did not have review. We eat supper at 5 and had dressparade and drilled till sundown. We drawed a barel of flower to the co and traided it for lite bread at the bakery. And it made us saucy to eat lite bread. And we drawed meal and dried appels.

23rd I was detailed for Camp Guard and was excused from duty for my clenly and most soldierly apperance at guard mount. And I went through to the fortyfycations and saw the large guns and the 3 sawmills sawing lumber. And the 480 foot building for provision. And its no use to tell all that I did see that uncle sam is having don. He is the most Extensive buisness man that I ever knew. He has a large garden two. And work of all kinds goying on. And men of all kinds sects and nations engaged in his buisness. It was wash day. And we went to Stones river and washed and bathed. And we had dressparade.

24th Sunday we had regt inspection before breakfast. And Levi was detailed for picket . We had Co inspection at 9 A.M. And then slept in the shade ti11.3 P.M. And then went to preaching. And had dressparade at 5. And I put in some time at writing.

25th we drilled before breakfast. And our Co had 8 men detailed for camp guard and picket and 5 of them got excused. And our co averages 4 each morning. Levi was relieved from picket. I washed some clothing and we was ordered to form in line and here orders read. And the Agutant read the orders. And they was that we should give 3 cheers for Grant. For he was fighting and was about to take Vixburgh and had already taken a great many prisoners and a number of larg guns. And we gave 3 hearty cheers. We had dressparade at 5. And drilled till sundown and eat supper.

26th we drilled before breakfast and had dressparade at 5 and drilled till sundown and had orders to be ready for General Inspection the next day at 10 A.M.

27th we did not drill before breakfast. Levi was detailed for Camp guard and I helped him briten his brass plates and blacken his accutrements and shoes and brushed the dust of ove [off of] his cloths and then ceped [kept] him sitting in the band box till guard mount out of the dust. And then he got excused from duty at guardmount. And we went on General Inspection at 10 A.M. And the Inspecter General braged on our Co and said it was the nicest and cleenest co he ever inspected. And he sprung the hamer clear out of my gun and braged on it being a cleen gun and said my accutrements were very nice. We eat supper before 5 and had dressparade at 5 and drilled batallion till the moon was up and shining.

28th we had rool call and inspection before breakfast and had orders to get ready for General review at 6 P.M. And I was detailed for picket and there was no corporal excused of ove picket. And the lines are moved out and we had to go nearly 2 miles but we had a very nice shady place to stay in. It comenced raining at noon and drizled all evening and rained at a moderat rate all knight.

29th Still raining. We was relieved at 15 minuts after 9. And got in camp at 15 minuts after 10 A.M. and it rained till noon ( and Levi was on guard and they had a review the day before and made a bayonet charge and I was a mile of and hered the yells as plane as could be). And we drilled from 2 till 3 P.M. And when we came in I was called in to the markee to get a box of eatables that was sent from home. And I eat hearty of the contents of it. And we had dressparaid at 5 P.M. And drilled till nearly sundown. And it rained hard in the knight and thundered and lightened.

30th a very wet morning. I had a diarrhea and got some medicin. Levi was relieved from camp guard. It rained and thundred at times all day. We had dressparade. 6 of us took our guns for an example. I was one of the 6. And I judge that we will turn over our guns in a fiew days.

31st Sunday I still was very bad with the diarrhea. It was a very nice day. And we got some good letters. I put my time in at reading. We had regt inspection at 6 P.M. by the Colonel. And I was at meeting at knight. And it rained in the knight.



June the 1st 1863. it was a splendid day. We drilled before breakfast. And Levi was detailed for picket and got excused at guardmount. And we drilled from 9 to 10 A.M. And I put the rest of my time in at reading and writing. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. and drilled afterwards.

2nd we drilled before breakfast. And it rained very hard. We drilled. And in the evening there was a darkey shot accidentally and died in about 2 hours

3rd it rained very hard just before daylight and thundred very hard. The lightening struck a tree about 150 yards from my tent. And it knocked the 2 centenals down that was on camp guard the closest to it. We did not do anything till 5 P.M. And then we went on dressparade and had orders read that major wallos was discharged from the service. And we had orders to get 6 days rations in our haversacks and napsacks. And we got them packed and then the orders was to have 3 days rations in our haversacks and 4 days rations of crackers and coffey and shooger in our napsacks. We went to bead at rather a late hour. And I awoke at half past 2 in the morning and did not sleep any more that knight.

4th we went out and drilled before breakfast and we drilled before dinner. And had dressparade at 5 P.M. And drilled afterwards. And we heard cannonading nearly all day in the southwest from Murfreesboro. And at about 7 o'clock I took sick at my stomach and vomited and when I layed down to sleep I had to spit and could not sleep till midnight. It rained in the knight.

5th I felt tolerable bad. Levi was detailed for picket and got excused on guardmount. We had orders to get ready for General review at 5 P.M. And we got ready and it drizzled rain and we did not have review but we had dressparade. And the Generals came. And the brassband. And they played a fiew times and dissmissed.

6th it still drizled rain a little. Levi and I washed some clothing. I put my time in at writing. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. And did not drill after dressparade.

7th Sunday. a beautiful morning. I was detailed for picket. And there was no corporal excused. The Agutant spoke well of my gun and apperance. It comenced raining at 6 P.M. and rained till 8. And I fixed a wigwam with my blanket and sit under it. And at 12 M it cleared off and was a beautiful knight. One shot fiered on the lines.

8th it was a butiful day. We was relieved at 9 A.M. Levi was detailed for picket. The 17th regt Ky. Voln came in our devision and it is suposed they will belong to our brigade. (our regt had General Inspection at 5 P.M. on the 7th.) At 12 M we had orders to get ready till one P.M. to go to devision head quarters to see a deserter shot but when the bugle blowed the orders was that we need not go that the time was put off. And so I think he was repreived. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. And the orders was read that all wishing testaments should go to head quarters and they would be furnished to them. We drilled after dressparade. It drizled rain.

9th we drilled before breakfast and one hour in the fournoon. And in the afternoon we drawed new Endfield's rifles. And they felt much liter than our Vinsan mountain howetsers. We had dressparade and drilled afterwards. It drizzled rain.

10th it rained a good deal all day. We had orders to drill but did not on the account of the rain. We had dressparade and drilled afterwards.

11th it rained. We drilled before breakfast. Levi was detailed for camp guard and was excused on guard mount. We went out to drill but it rained two heard. And in the afternoon we took the old guns and went to the forts. To the arsnal and turned them over. I turned the gun over that I drawed at Louisville, Ky. We had dressparade at 5 P.M.

12th it was a splendid day. We had General Inspection at 10 A.M. And our company was braged on. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. And drilled till late.

13th we drilled before breakfast. And William Jacobs of Co. C was accidently shot goying out on picket. The ball entered his head just above the left ear and came out at his forehead. He lived about one hour. The brain and bones were mangled and it was a destressing sight. It made me shuder to look at him. He was a good Soldier and was always with the regt only when on duty. I could hardly ceap from sheding tears to think that he was so sudenly called away. But it is a debt we all have to pay sooner or later. He was burried in the after noon. I put my time in at writing and sewing. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. And drilled afterwards.

14th. Sunday it was a splendid day. I put my time in at writing in the fournoon and in the afternoon I and the orderly went to the picket lines and went all around our devisions pickets and got cherrys and plums and rasburrys and got flowers and enjoyed our selves very well. And we had dressparade at 5 P.M. And after dressparade it rained very hard and thundered.

15th we drilled before breakfast. And Levi was detailed for camp guard and was excused on guard mount. I took the bronz of ove my gun and painted the stalk and I am agoying to have the nicest gun in the Co I think. Levi's gun is brightened already. The noncomish officers drilled from 1 till 2 P.M. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. And drilld afterwards. We got orders at 8 P.M. to be ready till 8 the next morning to march to see a deserter shot.

16th it was a clear day and about the warmest I ever experienced. And 8 A.M. we formed the brigade on the parade ground and marched to a larg clover field about 1 and a half miles from Murfreesboro, Tenn. on the left hand side of the Lebanon pike. And when we got there the whole devision came. And we saw that the deserter was bound to be shot. Our brigade formed on the write (I will mark it out so it will be more plainly to be understood.

the devision was formed in mast on first devision of each regt so as to make the square as small as possible. And after we formed as I discribed I looked over the devision and thought there was about 5,000 soldiers to wittness the exicution. We stood a short time and saw the band coming. They approached and came inside of our lines and marched around our lines playing the dead march with muffled drums. The band was in front and then the 12 men that had 12 loded guns and 1 was a blank cartridge and 11 was with balls and rite after them was 4 men with white gloves carring the pine coffin and next was the chaplain leading privet William Minix of Co A 9th Ky Voln who was a young looking man and was a married man of about 23 or 24 years of age and about 5 ft and 7 or 8 inches high. And he wore long black hair which curled around his neck. And there was a guard on his write with a gun and fixed bayonet and next was his captain and sergeant and next was the company of provost guards a company. And when they past our lines slow and still except the musick it seemed to haress every mind and tuch the feelings of every man. The painter in all his art and skill of painting could not paint the scene to any one to make him think and feel as we did on that ocasion. Oh to think as he marched around in front of us blooming in youth and viger and strength and his hour had come and almost the last minut. It made our hearts pain and our blood run cold in our vains. And who could ceap from sheding tears. If a man does anything deserving death when it comes to the point of death it looks hard to see them die. When they moved to the place I marked, the coffin was sit on the ground and the said William Minx of Co A 9th Rgt Ky Voln was led in front of the coffin facing the whole devision. Then the centance was read to him and I understood by some who could here what was read that he had deserted from his co and regt and sold guns to the rebles. And when he was caught to bring him back he deserted from the ones that was bring him I understood. When his centance was read to be shot they ast him if he wanted to see his company. He said yess and they signaled for the co and when the company marched in front of him and halted he raised his head and looked brave and said fellow soldiers I volunteered in a good cause to fight for my cuntry with you but now I am centanced to be shot and have but a short time to live and I dont want you to do as I have don. I want you to meet me in a better world. He requested them to send his body home. And he shuck hands with the company and bid them a long farewell and also the others that stood around them. He nelt on his coffin. And the chaplain prayed. And then he raised and was told to sit down on his coffin. And he did so and crossed his hands. And the Sergeant major took a white handkerchief and blindfolded the victim. And then he never saw the earth again nor his fellow soldiers but was siting and heard all that was said. Oh what must have been his feelings when he knew in a fiew moments he must be in the spirit land.

The shots was not as uniform as might have bin for one shot fiered a little before the rest. But when the shots fired he throwed up his hands and fell back over his coffin dead. It was about half past 10 o'clock A.M. when the shots fiered. And some that stood close to him afterward told me that 5 balls struck him out of 7. For only 8 guns were fiered and one was blank and 4 was hel in reserve. We marched around by where the bloody corps layed. And went to camp. And they burried him at the same spot where he droped. And put a shade of leeves and brush over his grave.

We drilled noncomish drill at 1 P.M. and had dressparade at half past 5 P.M. and stacked arms. And the bugle sounded fall-in in a half hour. And we drilled till after sundown.

17th we drilled before breakfast. We halled cedars and set them out in the place of the old ones. And hawled poles and forks and made a shade over our tents to ceap them cool. It was a very hot day. I writ a letter for the Cincinati weekly dollar times. We had dressparade at half past 5 P.M. and drilled till nearly dark. We drill our old drills that we drilled perfect long ago. It sprinkled rain a little in the knight.

18th we drilled before breakfast and we drilled noncomish at 1 P.M. And dressparade at 5 P.M. And we formed the brigade and went out and drilled the brigade drill till sundown.

19th we drilled before breakfast. And I don a large washing. The company drilled from 9 till 10 A.M. And noncomish drill at 1 P.M. We had dress at 1 P.M. and drilled afterwards.

June the 20th we drilled before break. Levi was detailed for picket. And I was detailed for camp guard. It was washday for the regt. They had dressparade at 6 P.M. It sprinkled rain a little in the knight.

Sunday June 21st it was a butiful day. I was relieved at 8 and a half A.M. The Co. had inspection at 9. And Levi was relieved at 11 A.M. I received 2 good letters. Leieutenant George C Whitlock of our Co got his resignation papers today. I writ a great part of the day. We had dressparade at half past 5 P M and the orders was issued and read by Colonel Kneffler for us to drill from 9 to 11 A M with a half hour intermition and from 2 till 4 P.M. And then we drill from 1 to 2 hours before breakfast and from 1 to 2 after dressparade.

June the 22 we drilled before breakfast and at 9 to 11 A.M. And Levi don a large washing. We had dressparade at half past 5 P.M. And drilled till sundown. George C Whitlock went home.

June the 23rd we drilled before breakfast and from 9 till 11 A.M. and from 2 till 4 P.M. I writ and read some. And we had dressparade at 5 P.M. and drilled. And I went to the brush Church that the 19th O. V. I. has built to meeting. They are a goying to organize a Society for the benefit of the religious part of the devision and all who wish to come if we stay here.