[Feb. 1865] [Mar. 1865] [Apr. 1865]

William becomes a 1st Lieutenant



Dec 31st A.D. 1864. reville as usual. We got ready to move. & it cleared off. The Genl sounded at 6:15 A.M. & it was geting cold very fast. It is said it is 15 miles to the Tenn river at the nearest point. & 23 miles to Florance. We started at 8:30 A.M. & our regt was in the rear of our Div. We was ordered to stop a company at a plase & guard the train which followed our Div. We started East. & it was said we had 4 days to go to Huntsville in. We found the roads better than we expected. But they was muddy & partly froze. & we marched to Sugar crick & stoped at 2:40 P.M., for the troops was bridging the crick. & we started at 3:40 P.M. & crossed Sugar crick & Stoped to camp at 4:45 P.M., haveing come about 16 miles. Lt Mount of Comp H told me he was dissmissed the service. We cut wood & carried rails & had large fires, for it was very cold. We retired early & slept fine.

Jan 1st A.D. 1865, Sunday. reville as usual. We got up & remembered that it was New Years day. & I felt thankful & glad that I had bin spared through the year A.D. 1864 & promited to see another newyears day. There was a good many newyears guns fired around through camp. & yells. The Genl sounded at 7 A.M. & we did not move & suposed the Pioneers was bridgeing Elk river which was not far in our front. It was a beautiful day. Some of our mess went out & got a good shoulder of meet & some Eggs. & we had a mess of Eggs. We started at 2:30 P.M. & marched over 2 miles toward the river & stoped at 4:30 P.M. to camp, as we expected the bridge or crossing was not compleeted yet. It was said the intention was to bridge the river with wagons. & it was two deep & swift & so they had to contrive some other plan to cross. We retired early.

Jan 2nd A.D. 1865. reville as usual. It was a beautiful morning. There was two men from the comp sent out to forriage. I went to writing. Our forriagers got 6 hams & 2 midlings of good meet & our mess of 8 men that cook togeather now got 3 hams one side & 5 chickens which we fried & eat for supper. I bought $1.00 worth of apples & treated the boys to them as a Newyears treat. We drew a quart of meal to the man. The Lt said we had orders to go to Huntsville & go in winter quarters & prepair for an early & active campaign. We retired late.

Jan 3rd A.D. 1865. reville as usual. It comenced raining before 3 A.M. but as it had looked like rain we pitched tents last night. We have very strict orders prohibiting forriageing without proper athority. & orders to have roll call at irregular hours & report all absentees. The Genl sounded at 11:30 A.M. & we started at 1:30 P.M. & it stoped raining & cleared off. We crossed Elk River on a new trustle bridge & found very muddy roads. We marched very fast & had roll call at every temporary halt. We marched through a very muddy swampy country. We heared the cars blow which raised yells from the boys. We marched in to Athens at 6:30 P.M. having marched 11 miles & we went a mile further & stoped to camp before 7 P.M., having marched 12 miles. We was tired & wet with sweet. & it was turning cold very fast. We was told the cars came from Huntsville last Saturday. We retired after 9 P.M.

Jan 4th A.D. 1865. reville as usual. It was a cold morning. The Genl sounded at 7 A.M. & at 7:30 A.M. we started. & the ground was froze very hard. We marched to Athens & took the Huntsville road. & it soon comenced thawing. We crossed Swan crick 2 miles from Athens. We received mail. I received two letters. We marched very fast through a very poor country of a good many slews & swamps & thick woods & shrubbs. We crossed Piney Crick & Limestone Crick & stoped to camp near Indian crick at 3:45 P.M., haveing marched 20 miles. We was tired & one man & I went on picket. & I was on first relief. & the Post I was stationed at was a house, the residence of Dr. (_____). & we was to guard the house & do picket duty as the soldiers was goying for every thing they had. & we guarded what was left. & the old Gentleman wanted us to stay for supper. & after we was relieved we eat with him. His daughter said while the soldiers was grabing for meal & other eatables she grabbed two & saved a nough for supper & breakfast. & she said she was willing to devide with the guards. The supper consisted of fried ham, molasses corn pone & one Pitcher of sweet milk, & they would not have pay, as they said we just come in time to save what little they had left. We went to the reserve & slept but little for it was very cold & we went on post every 4 hours.

Jan 5th A.D. 1865. we heared reville early. & the Genl sounded before day light. & the 1st Div started at day light. I was told that the regt drew 2 days rations of bread, coffee, Sugar & soap. & Sergt Cline of Comp C rejoined his comp from furlough. At 8:45 A.M. we got orders to call in the pickets & march to the road & wait till the Brig came along. & we started at 9 A.M., & came to a pike 2 miles from town. The regt was counted off in 8 equal companys & the regts unferled the Colors. & we marched in to Huntsville the County Seet of ---------- County at 11:30 A.M. & we brought our guns to a"right shoulder shift", & "by company in line". The band was playing in front of each Brigd, & every regt went through town the same way. The city is in a nice valley near the spurs of the Cumberland Mountains, & is a tolerable large town & is not as prety a town as I have seen. We marched through the city & stoped at 12 M. & the officers went out to look out a plase for camp. At 3 P.M. we started & it was sprinkling rain. & we marched about 5 miles from Huntsville on the pike leding South to the Tenn river. & the 1st Brig'd of our Div went in camp on the right hand side of the pike, & the 2nd on the left & 3rd on the left of 2nd. We stoped at 4:45 P.M., haveing come 11 miles today, makeing 174 miles that we have marched since we left Nashville Tenn. It was said we would build winter quarters & stay for some time & we made out a requisition for all we wanted to draw. The first Div of the 4th Corps is camped East of town & 2nd North West if I mistake not. & we are South. & I think one Brig'd of 2nd Div took the cars & went to Decatur Ala near the Tenn river. We pitched tents & retired early. & it rained in the night.

Jan 6th A.D. 1865. reville late. We got up late. It still rained a little. I writ & sent out letters. We could not work at winter quarters. As it rained two hard to lay off camp till nearly night. Our comp got no ax & some of the boys went to mjer quarters & stold two. We received a large mail. I received two letters from home. They had bin laying on the way some time. We had orders to have rollcall at regular hours through the day. & no man was alowed to leve camp. It turned cold & windy & we retired early.

Jan 7th A.D. 1865. reville late. It was cool but had ceased to rain. & the camp was layed off. & we got orders to put up tents or houses 10 feet long 7 wide & 5 high & the houses 4 feet apart & 4 men in each house & the chimney & door both in the end of the house toward each street. For camp is formed by companys to the rear from the Color line. & then front to the Colors company. & the streets about 10 yards wide. & the line officers tents about 60 yards in rear of Color line. & field & staff line of tents 20 yds in rear of line officers tents. & the pioneers are to put up with their companies. We are on a ridge in the woods. & the ground is full of flinty stone & the water is about 500 yards distant. A teem from the Div suply train was sent to each regt to hawl lumber to build buncks &c. We drew beef & two days bread, coffee, salt, soap & candles. We was notified that the mail would go out every day near 3 P.M. We got some lumber & cut & split timber to build the walls of our houses & carried it up. One of the boys went out & got a Peck of Meal & 2 hams & 2 shoulders of good meet. It had cleared off before noon & was a beautiful day.

Jan 8th A.D. 1865, Sunday. reville late. We went to work early. Dunlap got a ax & we ground it for our own use. It was a prety day. We put up our tent & covered it. One man was sent out of our comp on picket. & there is only 9 Privats & two Noncommissioned officers goes on picket from a regt every 4 days. Two men from the comp went out with Brig teems a forriagaing. We drew beef but it was so poor the boys would not eat it. Sergt Cline of Comp C comenced acting Sergt Major. We heared cannonading seemingly towards Florance & seemed like large guns on gunboats. It clouded up & spit snow. There was an order to turn over all pack horses except one to two commissioned officers. At night one of the boys went out & got 3 shoulders & one ham & gave us two for the use of the horse. It turned very windy & stormy.

Jan 9th A.D. 1865. it was raining. We went to carring large stone to build a chimney. & we built it up to the arch of stone & built it up a little way with sticks & it rained so hard the mudd fell out. & we quit the chimney & dobbed the whole tent or house. & we was all as wet as could be. L't Cardell got lumber hawled & we helped carry it up the hill. & Jas C Dunlap went out & got a half a load of lumber for our own tent. We drew Shoes & Stockings. I drew a pair of shoes, as my boots was worn out. We drew beef but it was not fit to eat. We drew 3 days rations of bread, soap, candles & one of Salt meet. It rained so hard we quit work before dark. & it was very stormy. After dark it nearly ceased raining. & turned blustery & cold & rained a little all night.

Jan 10th A.D.1865. it was nearly clear but it soon clouded up. I went to helping the L't Cardell put up his tent, as he wanted me to help put up a house & stay with him this winter. There is an order to have Brigade camp guard. It took 2 man from our Comp. & they have very strict orders against letting men out without a pass from Knefler. We drew beef, coffee, Sugar, pepper, vinegar & beans. It rained nearly all day & L't & I got our tent nearly all boarded up & got a waggon sheet to cover it. & got a load of brick hawled to build a chimney. We would have got mor don but we runn out of nails. We received mail. & had orders to have roll call at reville & 12 M. & retreat (or dressparaid time) & tattoo. & be very careful & report all absentees. My old mess mates Dunlap, Hague & Richardson got their house all compleeted except the buncks to lay on & the floor & it is a very warm comefortable house. I still cook & eat with my mess & will stay with Cardell.

Jan 11th A.D. 1865. reville as usual just before day light. It was cold & threatened snow. I got a pass to go out & get some nails. But could not get it sighned unless a Commissioned officer would go along, for that is in the order. & I did not go. I carried the brick up the hill to build the chimney & L't got some nails of the Q.M. & I carried water & made mudd. & Johnston put up the chimney above the arch & I worked at it a while. We got orders to cleen up the brush in camp. The camp guard is furnished as usual of each regt in the Brigd each day. I was told by one of the boys that he heared an officer say that my Commission for 1st Lt would be hear in a fiew days. After noon it cleared off & was a beautiful afternoon. We hung our door with leather hinges. & layed the floor with good lumber & built a fire in the fire plase. & it does fine. We drewed beef as usual. L't & I retired after 10 P.M. & it was a cold night.

Jan 12th A.D. 1865. it was a cold clear morning. Our regt furnished pickets as usual. 24 hours in 96. Or one day in 4. I cut & carried timber for Chimney sticks, as we did not have brick enough to finish. The quarters was policed. & all the stone (which was wagon loads) was pieled in piles. I finished the Chimney. & we put up a bunck & made a writing desk, or table. The bunck & table are in the back of the tent & I think L't & I have the best winter home in the regt. It is not the warmest but the neatest & best layed off & planked up. It is 9 by 10 feet & the walls 4 1/2 feet high. & all built of plank. & a good tight floor. & the door is a nice fit. & the fire plase is a good size & does not smoak & throws out heat well. We are goying to have stools to sit on. We drew 3 days rations except meet. We retired late.

Jan 13th A.D. 1865. we got up at 5 A.M. There was regular guard mount at Brigade HD Qrs. It was a cool morning. I went to makeing stools & shelves &c in the tent & after dinner I washed my cloth & got up a lot of wood to burn at night to dry my cloth. It was rumored that we was goying to move in 10 days. & that the 16th & 23rd corps was moveing. & that Genl Ripply had superseded Genl Hood. I writ a letter home after night & dried my cloth & washed myself good & put on cleen cloth. We heared cannonading betweeen 10 & 12 in the night. & it seemed to be up the Tenn river. & it got closer & plainer & I think it was gunboats shelling the woods along the river. We retired at midnight. & I slept fine. & I slept with my trousers off. & I think it was the first night I have slept in my drawers with [out] trousers since I have bin in the service.

Jan l4th A.D. 1865. it was a beautiful day. I writ & sent out letters. I sent Thos C Batchelor $3.45 that I colected for him. I put a latch to the door. There was an order read to us that Sergt Car of Comp B was reduced to ranks for goying beyond the limits of the camp in oposition to Genl order Y01 which was read to us several days ago which is very strict. At the same time a Congratulatory Order from President Lincoln & Genl Wood was read, which was very nice & stated that in the two days fight at Nashville our Corps took 24 pieces of artillery, 5 casons & several stand of Colors & several thousands of small arms & prisnors, with comparitively small loss in the Corps, as the Casualties of the two days will not amount to over 700 men. At 7 P.M. I sit down to write & was called to go on guard & I went right on post. It was a cold clear moonlight night. I did not sleep but one hour all night.

Jan 15th A.D. 1865, Sunday. it was cold but a nice morning. I was relieved & went to camp at 9 A.M. The 86th Ind had orders last night to take 3 days rations & leve every thing & report to the Depot. There was Company Inspection. & we was ordered to have Genl Inspection tomorrow at 2 P.M. Jas P Johnson was reported absent from 3 roll calls with out leve. & was took to Brigade Hd Qrs under guard. I writ some & sent out mail. Johnson was tied up a while & then reliesed after calling the Coln & telling him the reason he was absent. There was rumors of peace proclamations in the paper. I helped make out some clothing returns. We had good corn pone for supper. The Lieut told me he heared from good athority that there was a lot of commissions expected for our regt in a fiew days. & that mine was one among the others. I writ a letter to Daniel after night. & retired after 9 P.M.

Jan 16th A.D. 1865. it was a nice day. I picked & piled stone & policed till noon around my tent. Dr. McFaden rejoined the regt from furlough. He has bin gon a long time & could not find the corps. I received a letter from Levi & one dozen Photographs which I had taken when I was at Nashville. & they was very Poor Photographs. & I received another letter with my loves Photograph in it. We had Genl Inspection. I ruled out a lot of blanks for clothing returns. I sent out mail. After noon I got some washing done. After dark I writ. & retired after 10 P.M.

Jan 17th A.D. 1865. it was a beautiful morning. I writ some & sent out 3 letters. The Inspecter Genl gave in his report that our regt was in great need of clothing & that Companys A & I (which was inspected togeather) had the cleenest guns & clothing & made the most soldierly appearnce on the Inspection. The guards had made so much nois & done so much shooting on post last night that a good many are said to be punished for it. It is said the two Commissioned officers who had charge of the reliefs are to be dismissed the service, but I dont think they will be. We drew soft bread. At night James Cotton took the Cramp Collic very severe but the Dr. gave medicine which soon relieved him of the severe pain. There was two regts came to our Brig, 3rd & 4th Michigan Vols Infy. They are said to be 100 strong each. I writ till late & sent out some of my Photographs. I retired after 10 P.M.

Jan 18th A.D. 1865. it was a beautiful day. Ralph Robbins rejoined the Comp. I had the Boys to sign the clothing Receipts for 4 month. I writ & sent out letters & Photographs to friends. Thomas Swan rejoined comp from prison & come in to my old mess. He is fat but not stout. The 86th regt rejoined Brigade. 5 of our company was on guard. I helped make out a muster roll. We drew Clothing. I drew a Pr of Drawers. I changed & sewed pockets.

Jan 19th A.D. 1865. it was cloudy. I went to guard mount & they put on a great deal of stile. & everything is done according to Tacticks which looks very nice. I got some Shavens at John Israels Shop to put on our bunck for Feathers. I writ & sent out mail - received a letter from James. I sewed some. It was said all of the safe guards that are through the Country guarding citizens Property are ordered to come in on the account of so many Gurillas through the Country. I writ till late & retired.

Jan 20th A.D. 1865. it was windy & threatened rain. There was an order for every man to have a gun & do duty except for musitions & others who are detailed for something else. & the Pioneers are to do duty as the company except when on Pioneer duty. We drew 5 days rations except bread & meet. I don some writing. I received a letter from my Cousin William Huntzinger & he is well & at Nashville Tenn. When he was mustered out of the service with the regt he came back to Nashville & is doing watch duty there now. I received a letter dated Nov 27th which had bin lost. The paper stated that Fort Fisher N.C. was carried by assault on the 15th. & 2,500 Prisnors & 72 Pieces of artillery captured. Our loss hevy. I writ a letter to Cousin William Huntzinger. I drew a wool Blanket. At dark it comenced raining. I helped make out a Muster Roll after night. We retired late.

Jan 21st A.D. 1865 It rained all night & still rained. I made out a Muster Roll. It nearly ceased raining after dinner. The news in the Papers was good. & the news was that Genl Shermans Army was on the move again. & great Peace rumers are in nearly all the Papers. We drew more clothing. I drew a half shelter tent. I writ a large letter & sent a Photograph. It still drizzld rain. We talked & cut up till late & then retired at 11 P.M.

Jan 22nd A.D. 1865, Sunday. it still rained a little. We had Comp Inspection. I writ some. I received a letter from Capt Howe. I made out a muster roll. We got orders to be ready to move till 6 A.M. tomorrow with two days rations in our haversacks. & two men to be left in camp to watch the things left. We drew bread. All of our boys that was on guard & Picket was relieved to go with us. Thomas Swan was sent to Div Hospital to be detailed to do anything they thought he could do. It rained a little all day. & I retired soon. & it rained all night.

Jan 23rd A.D. 1865. we was up early. & it was sleating & turned to snow. & at 7:40 the assembly sounded & we fell in & started. The 13th O.V.V.I. went along with us. It was very cold & freezing. & we went to town without stoping & drawed ammunition & passed through town. & was ordered to get in the wagons. & we went out about 5 miles on a pike north. & then we came to a very bad muddy road. & it was so cold & windy that we could not ride far till we had to walk to warm ourselves. & we passed through Maredingville [Maysville?] & crossed Bar crick. & when we was 16 miles from Huntsville, 11 wagons turned to the left & went 2 1/2 miles & loaded with corn fodder blades where 9 wagons had bin captured & burned last week. & part of Comp C 86th Ind was captured. Teemsters & all amounted to 23 in all after fighting some time. But the rebels was 300 strong & took them in. Some of the boys got butter & dried fruit. & after I helped load the wagons, the boys gave me a lot of butter to eat & we went back & crossed Bar crick & camped at 8 P.M. At Night our teems was in the rear. We had traveled about 32 miles & the ground was geting froze very hard only in the deepest mudd holes. It snowed a little & then cleared off & we layed down to sleep at 10 P.M. I had carried a knapsack & Wool Blanket & Poncho Rubber & Haversack, canteen, gun & accoutrements. The most of the regt brought no Wool Blankets & nearly froze. The regt got a lot of meet.

Jan 24th A.D. 1865. we was up at 5 A.M. & ready to start before day. It clouded up & snowed a little but did not snow long till the sun shun out at times & the teems that did not load yesterday loaded & we started at 9:40 A.M. & marched two hours without stoping & the ground was froze very hard & rough. & it thawed a little on top which made it very slick slavish walking. We reasted 10 minuts & then marched in to Huntsville in one hour and 15 minuts & stoped. I bought a half dozen apples for 50 cts. & we got to camp till 3 P.M. & the troops was drilling. Our baggage had come up but all our things was gon but the Comp Box. & James Hagues Box of eatables had come & we had a good mess of Apples. & a mess of Eggs & cakes & canned Butter. I received a letter from James & they was only tolerable well. The order came around for to drill as follows. Officers School from 8 to 9 A.M. & Batallion drill from 2 to 3:30 P.M. & Dressparade 5 P.M. & a School or time to instruct the recruits at any conveniant time but we have no recruits. It was very cold & we retired early. & I had the rheumatis in my left Shoulder.

Jan 25th A.D. 1865. it was clear & very cold. We had orders to Police the whole camp & we did so. & I writ & sent out mail. We drew 5 days rations hard & soft bread, coffee, Sugar, Soap, Salt, Pickled Beef, Pickled Pork, Cod Fish mixed vegitables, dececated Potatoes, Pickled cabbage, vinegar & Whiskey. I got up a lot of wood. & writ till late & then we talked & read till midnight & then retired.

Jan 26th A.D. 1865 it was the coldest morning for some time. We did not drill, but some of the regts did. Our regt furnished guards again. I writ a large letter & sent out two large letters. I done some sewing & got up a lot of wood, as it is cold & takes a great deal of wood. The stone that had bin piled up in camp was hawled out. I writ a good deal. I bought a paper. The news was tolerable good. & I think before many month the City of Charleston will be ours. After night I read the testament & studied the tactics, for I had got a lot of candles so I could read at night. I was detailed for guard in the morning. & I retired at 10 P.M.

Jan 27th A.D. 1865. we was up very early. It was very cold. I went on guard at 8:30 A.M. & had charge of 2nd relief. & they was Michigan lads. & I was buisy talking to them & the time passed fast. Frank Jelleff came up. I read in the testament when off ove post. It was very cool. It was said the Lieut Coln Parker & Capt Newland was under arrest, but I think it is a mistake. & that was said to be the reason our regt did not go on drill. Our guard quarters are a frame 40 feet Wide & 70 long & two large fire plases.

Jan 28th A.D. 1865. I did not sleep a wink. I was relieved at 9 A.M. I writ some & choped a lot of Hickory wood & partly made out a muster in roll (or a coppy of the old muster in roll). Capt Stubbs of Comp F was very sick & sent to the hospital & it is thought never to return. Frank Jelleff boards with my old mess & buys rations at head quarters. I read in the testament & retired early for I was sleepy.

Jan 29th A.D. 1865, Sunday. it was a cold clear morning. We fell in for Inspection at 10:30 A.M. I read in the testament & worked at some muster in rolls & remarks. John W Israels furlough came back approved & he started home. The papers confermed the news that the rebel Genl Dick Taylor had superseeded Genl Hood. It was rumored that we was goying to moove soon & go to Mobile but I dont believe the report as it is said the 16th & 23rd corps was both gon east. We had orders to make out pay rolls. I made out a muster roll & Lieut told me to put E.J. Hicks, Jas. P. Johnson, William A Richardson, & John Shoemaker down on the rolls as corporals. I retired after 11 A.M. [P.M.]

Jan 30th A.D. 1865. it was very cold. I made out muster rolls. I received a letter & made out a pay roll & spent the whole day in writing. We had oysters for supper, & read & writ & retired.

Jan 31st A.D. 1865 it was a beautiful day. I writ & read some. & we drew 5 days rations except bread. & at 15 minuts till 1 P.M. we got orders to get ready to march at 2 P.M. & the report was that we was goying to Huntsville & take the cars to Nashville Tenn. & then the transports (or boats) to East Port Mississippi. We was ordered to leve our houses stand as other troops would be likely to come in in them. The Lieut put all of my extra clothing in his volise. The 2nd Brigade started out in front. & we started at 3:30 P.M. & the 1st Brigade had not struck tents. But it was said our whole Div was goying. The boys were uncomen saucy & mischievous. We got to the Depot in Huntsville at 5:30 P.M. & the troops was geting a bord the trains of cars as fast as possible. We got abord the cars at dark & the baggage was loaded on the cars. We was in box cars & was crowded very much. The boys got to some Sanitary & opened the barels & got more Pickled cabbage & Crout than we could eat. We started after 10 P.M. & could not sleep for being crowded so much. I was afraid the car that our comp & others was in would brake down. The Country that we passed through was very rough as well as I could see in the night.





Feb 1st A.D. 1865. I got room to sleep laying down at daylight & slep two hours. & we got to Stevenson Ala. at 8:45 A.M., 60 miles from Huntsville. & we got off ove the cars & got our breakfast while the cars was switching & prepairing to go to Nashville. Our mess bought $2.00 worth of chees & 5 pies, for we had left our cod fish. & was a little scarse of rations. I received a letter. The car was so rackety & swung so that I was afraid to stay in it. & I reported the case to the officers in the officer car. & Genl Batty looked at it & part of the troops on top was ordered off ove the top. At 11:50 A.M. we passed through a flat swampy part of country & mountains on each side timbered with cedar & shrubby oak. The Country was miserable. We wound about among the mountains & passed out of Alabama in to Tennessee, about 14 miles from Stevenson at 1 P. M. & an Engin hitched on in rear to help push, for it was up grade very much. & the road was so crucked that one Engin was not sufficient to take our train through, which consisted of 19 cars which was loaded inside & on top as thick as they could be. They had to stop & repair a little at our car & ordered all off ove the top so the car would not mash down. The road was so crucked & had such deep cuts that the train was in the shape of the letter S. & we could not see either Engin, & sit on top of the cars. We got to the Tunnel under the Cumberland Mountains & stoped at 2 P.M. & it is about 88 miles from Nashville.

The front Engine went through the Tunnel after another Engine. & it came. & the train entered the Tunnel at 3 P.M. & we was just 5 minuts goying through the tunnel. & it was the darkest plase I ever saw. & the walls was very close as we had a candle light part of the time. We stoped at Cowan Station a fiew minuts which is 87 miles from Nashville. We passed through a very nice looking level country & stoped at Dechard Station 80 miles from Nashville. & then passed through ------ Station, 77 miles from Nashville. & a muel got his legs out of a car & they had to stop a while to get him back. & we passed through Tullahoma at 5 P.M. It is a little town surrounded by a beautiful looking but poor country. & the timber is shrubb oak. There is tolerable good works around the town & the branch of railroad that goes East to McMinnsville leves the Nashville & Chattanooga R.R. We then passed through Normanda Station near a prong of Duck River among the hills 62 miles from Nashville. & we passed through War trass a station. & I layed down to sleep at dark. We stoped at --------- Station & let 5 trains pass us goying to Stevenson, & 4 had passed at other stations. We passed through some stations while I was a sleep & we passed through Murfreesboro but it was so dark I did not get up to see the plase. & one of the Michigan boys of our brigade was mashed all to pieces with the cars. & one of the cars of the train next to us upset & was an open top car & spilt the soldiers all out & did not hurt them. One of our regt steped off ove the cars while running in his Sleep & broozed him a good deal. We arived in Nashville about 2 O'clock. It is about 113 miles from Nashville to Stevenson & there is marks of breast works nearly all the way & troops every 2 or 3 miles & forts & block houses at the bridges & the towns.

February 2nd A.D. 1865. I got awake at 5 A.M. & eat breakfast & bought pies & cakes. The talk was that we would start for Louisville at Day light. & I started to see Levi & he had left the Comp at 5 A.M. to go to Genl Rusaws Hd Qrs to receive Dispatches to carry to Johnsville on the train. & I went to Hd Qrs & asked the Clerk if Levi was gon. & he said some couriers had left. & I thought Levi was gon. & returned to the regt. & we got off ove the cars at 7 A.M. & stacked arms in the mudd. & Capt Ellis our Suttler came to us. & Wm. Dunlap a brother to our orderly. & they had our company books. It had sprinkled rain all morning. & at 10 A.M. we started & went out the Granney White Pike & went out side of our line of works that we lay in in Dec & camped on the right hand side of the Pike where our Div had charged the rebels works on the 15th of Dec. It was rumored that the transports would not be up till 7 P.M. & then we would go on the boats. It was also a rumor that Genl Woods had aranged for the 1st Div of our corps to go to Knoxville Tennessee & the 2nd to East Port Mississippi & our Div to stay at Huntsville Ala. & when Genl Stanly came & took comd of the corps he sent the 2nd Div to Knoxville & the 3rd to go to East Port & the 1st to stay at Huntsville & Genl Stanly with them. & I expect that is about the way it is being aranged. It continued to rain. & we pitched tents & our baggage came to us. I writ & sent out a letter. & I received a letter from a friend in Minnesotta which gave me much satisfaction to read. We had peaches for supper & retired early.

Feb 3rd A.D. 1865. it had rained all night. & still rained a little. I went to writing & sent out 2 letters. It was a blustery day. It was rumored that we would get Paid before we leve hear. We had soft bread & sweet bread & canned peaches for dinner. We drew two days hard bread & a lot of Sanitary Crout & Onions. It cleared off after night. Our regt furnished pickets. We retired late.

Feb 4th A.D. 1865. we got up late. & it was a beautiful morning. I went to writing. Coln Knefler took command of our regt & Genl Batty the Brigade. I sent out a letter & finished reading the testament through. It was a beautiful warm day & reminded me of spring. I went to a high hill & saw the whole ground that we fought over (at a distance) over the 15th 16th of Dec. & I think the battle at Nashville was the bes aranged & most stragaticle movements that I ever saw. We drew two days rations of hard bread, & some beef. I tried to get a pass to go & see Levi but I could not get it approved. It turned cool at night. I retired early.

Feb 5th A.D. 1865, Sunday. It was cloudy & cool. I read & studdied tactics. We drew one days bread. & 3 days Salt meet, Beens & Salt & 4 days coffee & Sugar. It was rumored that we was goying back to Huntsville Ale. At dusk we received orders to have everything packed up & be at the Chattanooga depot till 7 A.M. in the morning. A furlough came for Thomas Swan. & I asked the Lieut to let me have a pass to take the furlough to Swan. & he gave it to me. & I got it approved. & the Lieut told me to take my things along & go & stay with Levi all night. I went to the pickets on the pike near town. & they told me I could not go in unless I had the countersign. & I told the buisness that I was on. & that Swans wife was dead. & he wanted the furlough as soon as possible. & they would not let me in. & I asked for the commissioned officer in charge. & he said there was non & I asked for the officer of the day & he would not be there that night & I asked what regt they belonged to. & they was a new Ohio regt. & I thought I better not try to force my way through, for they was scared. & their voices trembled when they spoke. & I heared them call in the relief. & I thought I was safe & went back the pike slow watching the direction they went to relieve the centenals. & I then turned to the right & went very still out of the pike & sliped through the line & went on in to town Hospital No. 14 where Swan was & delivered the furlough. & Swan told me that Samuel Swan was discharged. I then went to where Levi had bin & he was sick & sent to the Hospital. & the boys took me through the guard line. & I met Levi at the door. & he had a very high fever but was thought not dangerous & he had bin very bad ever since he returned from Bowlngreen. I went in. & the nurs was one of the 64th O.V.V.I. & a fine fellow & he took my baggage & put them in the baggage room & treated me like a brother & I & Levi set & talked till late. & he had to lay down. & I retired at midnight. & the nurs saw me safe in bead & wished me a good nights sleep & pleasant dreams. & I did sleep fine for it was a nice bunck.

Feb 6th A.D. 1865. I was up at 6 A.M. The report was that Dick Taylor was moving toward Huntsville Ala. I went into the Eating room & eat & gave Levi good by & started to the Depot & saw a large store burning. & there was 3 engins throwing water, but the building burnt. I wayed myself with all my lode on & I wayed 225 lbs & without my load I waid 175 lbs & so my load wayed 50 lbs. I bought apples & sweet bread & went to Rusaws Hd Qrs to see the Clerk McCracking from Franklin as Levi knew him & was not able to report & wanted them to keep the detail for him as he liked the buisness of courrier. He run to Clarksville about 60 miles. Then to Bowling Green Ky 65 miles & then back to Nashville on the R.R. I then went to the Depot & found Cousin William Huntzinger & taked with him a while. & our Brigade loaded on the cars firs[t], our regt in front. & we started toward Stevenson Ala at 10 A.M. The rumor was that Genl Thomas was sent to some other department. & Genl Stanly to take comd of the Dept of the Cumberland. & Woods the 4th corps. & Baty of the 3rd Div & Knefler the 3rd brigade. & Woods wanted his Div with him back at Huntsville. We passed through Lavergn 16 miles from Nashville. We passed through the old battle field of Stone river & saw the monument that was put up on the field. & we saw the strong fortified position near Murfreesboro, for the railroad is through the forts. We stoped in Murfreesboro at 1 P.M. which is 32 miles from Nashville & then passed through Fosterville 45 miles & through Bell Buckle ( ) miles & got to Wartrass 55 miles & the second car from the one I was on was thrown from the track by a beer barrel but we soon went on. The branch of the R.R. that runs to Shelbyville turns to the right at War Trass. We saw where the sitezens had made guarden & was plowing. I layed down to sleep at night. & it comenced snowing & we stoped at Dechards Station & the 19th O.V.V.I. went for a Suttler & got about $400.00 worth of goods. & the train was serched & part of the goods found. & the boys put under arrest. I slept tolerable well. & when we left Stevenson for Huntsville it was said when they was wooding* there was a squad of gurillas came inwith a fiew steps of the Engin where they was loading. & the Engineer started the train at full speed. & a fiew shots was fired but our boys was nearly all asleep & did not fire. Some of the boys that was awake said some one came along to the doors of the cars & said this car is loaded with soldiers. & it is thought now that they was rebs & afraid to attack us when they found the train was loaded with soldiers & it was dark.


* Supplying the engine with wood for fuel. This wood proved to be poor fuel.


Feb 7th A.D. 1865. it was very cold & several inches of snow on the ground. & the train moved very slow, as the wood was wet & green & they stalled 4 times. & we had to cut rails for them, to rais steem. We got to Huntsville Madison Co. Ala. at 9 A.M. & it was snowing a little. & we stood around nearly froze wating for the other trains with the other part of the Brigade. & it was said the train had runn off ove the track was what kept them behind. The trains had not come in at 11 A.M. & we started to our old camp. & it stoped snowing. & the roads was muddy. & we met a train of wagons halling in our lumber & house logs. & Coln Knefler told them to turn around & hall them back & ordered the boys to fix bayonetts & see that they came back. & we got to camp at 10 minuts till 1 P.M., having marched 16 miles & road 346 on the cars, makeing 362 miles. & the tent that Lt & I had was all tor down & halled away except the chimney & the front. & my mess mates tent was all right except the rafters & gable ends. & we soon fixed them up. & the Lt said he would stay with his mess & me with my mess till we could get something to build out of. Capt Ellis & William Dunlap came up with us with two loads of goods & their tent. & we put up his tent. It cleared off & was cold. We found the 1st & 2nd Div hear & Huntsville. It was said one man was killed & two wounded on a train goying to Stevenson just before we came down. We retired at 9 P.M.

Feb 8th 1865. Wm. B. Ellis & Wm Dunlap eats with us. & they furnish cand & pickled fruits & butter & crackers & condensed milk. It was said our teems had started to East Port goying through by way of land. & they was ordered back. They had went 55 miles. & was inwith 15 miles of Florence. They got in later in the Evening. Coln Knefler took comd of the Brigade. & Lieut Coln Parker started home on leve of absence & Capt Abbot took Comd of our Regt. I writ & sent out two letters. It was very cold. We drew 3 days rations & two of coffee & sugar & Pork. We talked till late & retired.

Feb 9th A.D. 1865. it was clear & very cold. I put my time in at reading & geting a lot of wood. I received a letter. I sewed some. The teems went out for lumber & a squad to patrool the country & bring in all the soldiers. I got all my cloth washed. It was cold. We talked till late & retired.

Feb 10th A.D. 1865. it was clear & very cold. There was Brigade camp guards detailed. It turned warmer. Capt Ellis took sick. I writ & sent out a letter. I heared the Inspector Genl say that company of the 19th O.V.I. that took so many Suttler goods as we came through from Nashville has to Pay $950.00 for them out of their next Pay. We heared a fiew shots from a gun boat. & retired late.

Feb 11th. It was cold. I stayed in the Suttler tent in plase of Capt Ellis. He was better. It turned out to be a warm beautiful day. I sewed some. We retired late.

Feb 12th A.D. 1865, Sunday. It was a beautiful day. We had Inspection at 10 A.M. I put my time in at writing & retired late.

Feb 13th A.D. 1865. it was cooler. Capt Ellis got on a new stalk of goods. I helped arange the goods & sell goods for them as they could not wate on all the Customers. We had oysters for Dinner. We drew Clothing. I drew Trowsers, Shirt & a Ponchoe Rubber. We had orders to be ready for Genl Inspection on the 16th. I don some sewing. We retired late.

Feb 14th A.D. 1865. it was cold & cloudy, & comenced sleeting. I received a letter from Home. I writ & sent out a letter. We signed the Pay rolls. It was very blustery & stormy all day. I sit up till 10 P.M. & sewed Changeing Pockets.

Feb 15th A.D. 1865. it was cloudy but warm. I put my time in at sewing & writing. We drilled Co drill from 9 to 10 A.M. & from 2 to 3.P.M. Wm. Holdcroft rejoined the Company. I writ after night. The Band Plaid a long time in the 19th O.V.V.I. for some Officers Whos time is out. & they are goying home. We had drew 5 days rations & had drew some Pickle Pork & Scale Haron. I read some & retired late,

Feb 16th A.D. 1865. It sprinkled rain. I bought a sho Brush & we fixed up for Inspection. I put my time in at reading. I bought some sweet milk. & we had two cans of strawberrys for dinner. We have eat about 2 dozen cans of fruits since we came to this camp. It turned out to be a beautiful day. We was Inspected at 2 P.M. By the Brigade Inspector Genl & mad a nice apperance. Capt received mor goods. & I helped him some. I writ a good deal. We retired late.

Feb 17th A.D. 1865. It was clear & windy. I was detailed for Picket & went out on Picket with one other sergt & 6 Privates. & we had two centenals on Post at a time. It was very stormy. I put my time in at reading Tactics. The Wind layed at dark. It was said the 86th Ind & 19th O.V.V.I. & our regt was goying out on a scout & would not return for 3 days, & would start a little after dark.

Feb 18th 1865. It was clear & cool. I had slept 3 hours. I was relieved & went to camp at 8 A.M. & the regt was gon all Except the Sick. I received two letters. One with Capt Howes Photograph in it, which I had sent for taken with his officer Equipments on. I put my time in at Writing & ruling out returns. It was a beautiful day. The apperance of summer. I heared two shots of artillery seemingly from a gun Boat. It is said our Boys got abord a gunboat at 3 A,M. this morning. The Boys came in at 9 P.M. The 19th O.V.V.I. & 86th Ind & our regt under command of Coln Dick. They had went up the river on a gun Boat 35 miles & landed & then scouted the country on the south side of the river & drove some bushwhackers & captured 2 & returned to Gunersville on the river 40 miles from Whiteside station where they started this morning, having went as far as ordered. We retired late.

Feb 19th A.D. 1865, Sunday. it was a magnificent day & the noble Birds was cherping & Warbling their notes & sweet songs of Prais to God. & it caused me to reflect over the summers gon By. I spent the whole day at writing on the coppy of muster in roll & discriptive. Thos McIlvain & Elias M Downing had stoped out when goying out on the raid & did not go with the regt & was took to Hd Qrs under guard & Wm Criteser was arested & took to Hd Qrs to, it is said it was for insulting woman in the country & other Offinces. We spent the evening in singing & retired late.

Feb 20th 1865. it was a beautiful day. I writ some & sent out mail. Thos McIlvain & Downing was sent to the Company with orders to be tied up by the thumbs in the comp quarters. We drew 5 days rations & got some Mackeral, vinegar, cabbage & candles. We Policed the whole camp. I received a large letter from one of my cousins, which was a welcome visiter & worth reading. I put my time in at writing. We drilled from 2 to 3 P.M. & had drassparade at 5 P.M. Thos McIlvain & E.M. Downing was untied after 3 P.M. I writ till late & retired.

Feb 21st A.D. 1865. Coln Knefler started home on furlough & Coln Dick took Comd of Brigade & Wm F McIlvain was detailed to bugle at Brigade Hd Qrs. The news that Charleston was Evacuated was spreding through camp. I put all my odd time in at writing & sent out two large letters. We drilled as usual & had dressparade & put the Evening in at Singing & retired late. & Frank Jelleff came up from Nashville. & John Israel rejoined the Brigade from furlough.

Feb 22nd A.D. 1865. it was raining. I went to writing & sent out a letter. It continued raining. Wm. Dunlap Started to Louisville to order goods hear & to Springfield Tenn. For Frank Jelleff has a Suttler commission for the Post at Springfield. & there are goying to runn two Suttler Shubangs. Capt Ellis went to town & Bought Saur Krout, Pickle Pig feet & Bear. It still rained & we retired late.

Feb 23rd 1865. It had rained all Night & still rained hard. I received a letter from Levi. He was geting better & thought he would soon be able for duty again. I was glad to hear from him, for I had become uneasy about him. We drew soft bread. I writ & sent out a letter. Capt Ellis had bought two hams for $1.00 & we boiled them. I heared Lieut Hodly of Comp K say he was Promoted to Capt & mustered. It rained study all day. The camp guards was took off. & if any one goes out in the Country they are to be put on Extra duty. I stayed in the Suttler Shubang selling goods for the Suttlers. & I did not drink a drop of their Bear. We retired late. & it still rained a little.

Feb 24th 1865. It still rained a little. I put my time in at the Suttler tent. The Papers stated the news was official that Charleston was Evacuated & 200 large guns spiked & left. & a lot of 6,000 bales of cotton was burned. & a lot ready to burn & was not fired & two large ships destroyed & two Blockade runners captured. & two thirds of the City burned. The Camp guards was put on again. I comenced doctring for the Erysipolis was wors on my face & nearer my eye. I put my time in at reading. It still rained a little. We retired late.

Feb 25th 1865. it was very windy & raining & had rained all night. & the storm was so great that it come very near blowing the Suttler tent down, but we kept it Proped up. We drew 5 days rations. The mail has not come up for 2 days. & it is said a bridge gave way with a train between hear & Pulaski as the trains came through that away sever days ago. The hard rain ceased after dinner. & I heared Large guns fire which was on gun Boats. & some of the Boys sawe the shells burst up on the mountain. I put my time in at reading & read late & then watched in the Suttler tent till after 1 O'clock for there had bin about $58.00 worth of Suttler goods stol. & they watched since.

Feb 26th 1865, Sunday it was clear & cool. We heared firing from gun Boats. Wm. Criteser was relieved & came to the company for duty as no reliable evidence was brought against him. I made out a Monthly Return. The Suttlers moved the goods in a big House that had bin built for the Coln. We had comp Inspection at 9 A.M. I put my time in at reading & writing. It was a beautiful day. We had dressparade at 5 P.M. & the Band played for us. I read till late & retired.

Feb 27th 1865. it was a clear cool morning, & turned out to Be a lovely day. We Policed the whole camp & cut the Stumps. I put my time in at Reading & Writing. We had dressparade. It comenced raining. I bought two candles & read in the testament after night. I finished studing & reading the Tactics Volume 2nd. We retired late.

Feb 28th A.D. 1865. it had not rained very much & was clear. & we had orders for to be mustered at 11 A.M. The Papers confermed the report of the Capture of Williamson by our men, as it is Official. I comenced reading the regulations of war. We was mustered at 11 A.M. I received a letter & writ & sent out two letters. We drilled & had dressparade. We bought a turkey & boiled him & had a good supper. I put my time in reading. & we talked till late & retired late.




March 1st A.D. 1865. It was sprinkling rain. I arose early & remembered it was my birthday. O how thankfull I was that good Lord had spared me through the dangers that I had passed through the last year of my age. I was detailed for camp guard. & we had guard mount at 8 A.M. & I was on the 3rd relief & had to take the names of all my relief & the capt comdg guards told me to report a man to Coln Dick for misbehavior on guard mount. I put my time in at reading. I passed through the 4th Mich camp. & it is the Pretiest ground for a camp & best camp I ever saw I think for winter quarters. I saw the 4th on dressparade. & they made a nice apperance. I slept a fiew minuts. It rained.

March 2nd A.D. 1865. it rained hard. We was relieved at 8 A.M. I bought 4 Pies. I put my time in at reading & writing. We retired late. & it still rained.

March 3rd A.D. 1865. it had rained all night & still rained. We (our mess) cut a wagon load of wood & had it hawled. I put my time in at reading & sent out a letter. We drew soft bread & we had drew 5 days rations except two days soft bread & 3 beef (yesterday) which is to be issued during the 5 days as usual. I put my time in at reading. There was a Chaplain came around & brought us Christian Papers which is seldom don in our camp. It rained so hard the guard was taken off. It thundered & Lightened & rained harder than we have seen for a long time. We retired late.

March 4th 1865. it had rained hard nearly all night, but was not raining when we got up. I had sent up a pass & it was approved. & I & John Shutters of Comp H went out to a house where he had bin a safeguard. & we passed the time very Pleasant as there was four young ladies belonged there, all single. Sisters at that. We eat dinner with them & they refused to receive Pay for dinner, but I told them I would pay for my dinner & we started at different times but they overpersuaided us to stay longer, & we stayed listening at them talk & sing till after 11 o'clock. & we started & they had baked us some bread & gave it to us to take to camp with us, & ast us to call again. When we got to camp it was clear & cool.

March 5th 1865, Sunday. there had bin 3 letters came for me yesterday. One from Levi P.H. He was well again. & one was from Cousin Higgins. The news was that there had bin two R.R. Bridges washed away on the road Via Pulaski to Nashville. The Elk river & Duck river Bridges. & the Stone river Bridge & two others on this side on the Chattanooga & Nashville R.R. are washed away. We had Company Inspection at 9 A.M. I writ & sent out a letter. The boys told me they thought I was captured when I did not return last night till after dark, as I had never staid out at night before. It was a beautiful day. I put my time in at writing & reading. & we retired late.

March 6th A.D. 1865. it was clear & cool. I writ & sent out a letter. The news was that there was more bridges washed away & that we had to make our rations do till the 9th, which will be less than half rations. & it was said the mail would not go clear through. We drilled as usual. & drew clothing. I drew one Pr socks & a Pr shoes. We had dressparade & the band played for us. We read & talked till late & retired.

March 7th A.D. 1865. it was cool & windy. We drew 5 days rations to do 5 days except no meet, as a train loaded with 85000 lbs of meet was said to have run off the track. We got 3 days rations of crackers. We policed the whole quarters, & had orders to have brigade drill at 2 P.M. & we did & the whole brigade drilled togeather & done well. It was a beautiful day. There was three of us got up a paper & mine was revised a little & thought suficient to show that we was not drunk as we had bin reported yesterday evening, becaus we was so noisey & cutting up so. It read as follows

Camp Co I 79th Ind Vols.

A.A. Munhall


We the undersigned members of Company I 79th Ind Vols. having understood that we or some of us were represented to you yesterday evening (evening of the 6th Inst) as being drunk, deem it due to ourselves & to our comp comdr to state to you that not one of Company "I" were at all under the influence of liquor. We were trying to amuse ourselves in our usual boisterous manner, and those that made the most noise, never use liquor in any form. We also desire to say that your informer is a liar and a falsifier, not worthy the name of Soldier. It is not pleasant to have our names used in the manner they were yesterday. And we give this information to you in justice to ourselves as men and Soldiers.

We are with all due respect

Yours Truly,

then the names of all the company who were present were signed. & after the Boys signed it I took it to Munhall & after he read it he came down & told us that no one had told him that Comp "I" was drunk & that it was a mistake. & we had bin misinformed about it & had suspiciand A wrong man. & so we just droped it. (We read till late & retired).

March 8th A. D. 1865. We was up early as the orders are to have roll call 4 times a day. It was raining. The rumor has bin current through camp that there had bin a big battle at Richmond & our army took a great many prisnors. We policed the whole quarters. & it stoped raining after noon & we hauled out the dirt that was sweped up in quarters. We had dressparade. & spent the evening in singing & retired late.

March 9th A.D. 1865. it threatened rain. A detail was sent [to] cut cedars to plant in our quarters to decorate the camp. I received a letter & writ & sent out one. It comenced raining. Yhe papers stated that 73 boxes of Suttler goods had bin destroyed with a train load by guerilla's at Franklin Ky on the Louisville & Nashville R.R. The 73 Boxes was Capt Ellises & Frank Jelleff's goods suposed to have cost near $3000. We received another mail. I received a letter from James, & two Certificates from Capt Howe for me to be sworn to & return them. The Adjutant did not sign them & swere me as he is not a commissioned Officer yet. There was Cedars hauled & planted in our quarters. It kept turning cooler & sleeted & snowed a little. I writ letters to send out with Capt Ellis. We saw the report in the papers that Mobile was evacuated sure. We retired late.

March 10th A.D. 1865. It was very cool & the ground was froze hard. The sky was clear. John Shoemaker's furlough came back approved for 30 days. We drilled Brigade drill at 2 P.M. We drilled two hours & it was tolerable muddy. I put my time in at reading & Writing. We retired late after an interesting Chat.

March 11th A.D. 1865. It was cold & the ground froze. John Shoemaker started home with 30 days furlough. & Capt Ellis started to send up a new stalk of goods & to go home, having heared that his wife was very unwell. Richardson & I choped a large load of read Oak wood & had it hauled up to the tent. Oak wood burns fine in this country. Thomas Swan returned from home & brought some writing paper & Envelopes that the Indiana Christian Commissioner had sent by him to us. It was a beautiful day. I writ a good deal. The rumor was that the 1st Div was goying to Knoxville Tenn. & that we would put up summer quarters hear. We drew beef but it was two Poor to eat altho we were meet hungry. We retired early & slept fine.

March 12th A.D. 1865, Sunday. It was cool & clear. I received a letter from a good friend. One worth reading & answering. The safe guards were ordered in. & it is suposed we are goying to move. Lieut Colonel Parker returned & brought Munhalls commission as Adjutant of the 79th Regt Ind Vols Infty. The train that the Colonel came to Huntsville on was atacked by guerrillas. & it is thought if Coln Parker had not taken an active Part in urging the guards to fire, the train would have bin captured. One man was killed by the side of the Colonel & the Engineer was wounded. We had Comp Inspection at 9 A.M. We drew 5 days rations except bread only 3 days & 2 of Meet. I writ & sent out two letters. We looked every minut to get orders to march . . & it was said we would go to Knoxville Tenn on the cars. It was a lovely day. I heared from one of my Cousins that I have not seen for years. I done some Sewing which was very neadful before we march & made arangements with the Suttler to send a stone home. The stone is a curiesity. I had procured the stone on my 23rd Birthday & wish to send it home to keep. I also made arangements with Lieut Cardell to put some of my cloth in his valise if we move. We had dressparade. & the Band played. We read till late & retired.

March 13th A.D. 1865. It was a beautiful spring morning. I signed the Cirtificats & was sworn to them by Adjutant Munhall & forwarded them to Capt Howe. I writ & sent out two large letters & received a letter from home. They was well. Pa had lost another good horse. We drew Whiskey & soft bread. The news came that Genl Grants troops Occupied Richmond. I talked till late of soldiers & religion & retired.

March 14th A.D. 1865. It was raining a little. The 1st Div had all left for Knoxville on the trains yesterday evening. We drew Pickle Pork. Our Brigade Band went to Surnade Genl Stanly last night. & he read a dispatch to them that Genl Lee had sent a large force to devour Genl Sherman & they were badly whiped by Shermans army. I saw in the papers that the nomber of pieces of artillery that fell in our mens hands at Charleston was 450 in plase of the first nomber. We had orders to make out a report of all men Absent & all the clothing, camp & garrison Equipage deficient for this month & to be ready for Genl Inspection at 2 P.M. of the 16th of this month. It was said that the 2nd Div would leve hear next. & us last. & a Brigade of cavelry come in & hold this plase. It was rumored that the 1st Div had come back & that we was not goying to leve. Kels Mc laughlin & Clark came up. They are old chums of Ellis & Jelleff & are goying to Suttler for the 19th O.V.I.I. & they said a lot of goods was at the depot. The same amount that had bin destroyed for Ellis & Jelleff. They was sent by a friend. It rained all day. We retired late.

March 15th 1865. we got orders after 3 A.M. to have reville at 5 & March at 6 A.M. We got ready to march. It was raining a little. We drew Bread, Coffee & Sugar to make us 5 days rations with what we have. The Second Brigade of our Div started at day light. We got dinner. I writ a letter to send home & sent it out. It turned out to be a beautiful day. The first Brigade started after dinner. We eat supper & it comenced storming & raining after dark. I put my time in at reading. After 8 Oclock we got orders to have reville at 3 in the morning & march at 5. We retired

March 16th A.D. 1865. reville sounded after 3 & it had rained all night. & the wind blew like a herrican. & the rain had fell in torrants. We eat breakfast. & the Genl sounded at 5 A.M. & it was still pouring down rain. We started at 5:45 Coln Parker was comdg regt. & the wind still blew & the clouds broke away a little & it only sprinkled at times. We found mud ov course. We saw plumb & Peach trees beginning to bloom. We arived at depot at 8 A.M. We got in Box cars before 10 & started at 10 A.M. It turned very cold. We saw where a train had runn off the track this morning. & it is said the guerrillas atacked the train. We saw a great deal of water on each side of the road. The ground was under water for miles at a plase. The Boys was unusualy merry & cuting up all the time. We got to Stevenson before 3 P.M., haveing runn faster than we ever have before on a fruit train. We bought Pies. We started at 4 P.M. & we crossed the Tennessee River at Bridge Port & the river was very full. Bridge Port is a better fortified plase than I thought it was. It is strong & would be hard to take. We passed Niger Jack (or Shell Mount) Cave, where there use to be salt works, before sun down. & crossed the White Sides Bridge before dark, which is said to be 116 feet high. & it looks very dangerous to cross, as it looks like the timber is nearly all polls. Our train broak but was soon all right. & we got to Chattanooga & stoped after 8 Oclock. & we all layed down to sleep & was worse crowded than we had ever bin, as Comp "E" & "I" was in one car, makeing 47 men. Some of the Boys said we started for Knoxville before midnight.

March 17th A.D. 1865. I got up at day light. & we was goying at tolerable fast speed. & I went to the Engin & helped the fireman fire just for fun. We passed through a beautiful Country & saw where the farmers had fenced their farms & proned their Orchards. & everything looks better than one year ago. The boys seemed to be very merry & not to mind or care for danger, altho we was in great danger all the time. At 9 A.M. the Engineer shut off steam & reversed it all of a sudden & I could not see what was the matter. & they said there was a car off the track. I looked back & saw all the soldiers geting off & I went back expecting to see some of the 19th O.V.I. (as they was on the rear of the train) all mangled & mashed up. I saw the caboose car off & the car next to it was off. & the Boys & their baggage strewed along the road for 100 yards, as the train had drug one car that far. & I was agreably surprised that no man was killed & none mortaly wounded but several was badly brused & stund. The road was all tore up for a hundred yards. We went on to Louden which was only one mile distant. We stoped. I was told a great many troops had passed toward Knoxville in the last fiew days, & that Genl Thomas had passed through this plase goying toward Knoxville & I supose the intention is to form an army & East. A train came from Knoxville & lay by us while we lay at Louden. & Genl Thomas & staff was on the train. It was very windy but had bin clear since last night. The boys went for a Suttler Shubang & the case was reported to Genl Thomas. & the guards in town formed in line in our front to keep us out of town. & we was ordered on the train & men detailed to keep us there. We bought pies & had 2 dozen egges for supper. & at 4 P.M. the road was repaired that our train tore up. & the train that had come from Knoxville passed us as we was on the switch. We started at 15 minuts till 5 P.M. & crossed the Tenn river on the long high bridge which looks very dangerous & is certanly near 100 feet high. We was noticed by nearly all the Citizens along the road. & little flags "Handkerchiefs" & hats was waved as we passed. At dark we caught up with 4 or 5 sections. & it was said a car runn off the track in front. We layed down to sleep. & soon moved on. & the cars stoped in Knoxville at about 11 Oclock.

March 18th A.D. 1865. we got up at day light. & got something to eat. The rumor was that Shardon had took Linchburgh Va & was goying to hold it at all hazzards. It was a lovely morning. I went in town & I dont think I ever saw as much a change in any town in the same length of time. The stors was full of almost anything one could call for. & a great improvement is made in town. We bought some pies & apples. Our engin runn off the track & kept us wating for it to be repaired. Genl Beatty came up. We started at 4:30 P.M. & run very fast a while at the rate of one mile in 2 1/2 minuts. & we stoped before 6 P.M. & was wating for water & got supper & layed down at 8 & the train started & passed the 1st Div at Strawberry Plains & we was awaked before 11 Oclock & told to get out the cars. We had road 236 miles & marched 5 miles. & we marched through new market & camped one mile from depot.

March 19th A.D. 1865, Sunday. we awaked after sun up. & it was said our whole div had got off the cars at this plase. We received mail. I received a letter. I ast to go to church as I heared the bell ringing but the coln thought we would move soon. We did not move & I went to town & saw Genl Brown & his Brigade of cavelry pass through town. & I saw a good many ladie looking women in town. After 12 M. Genl Beatty told us where we should move to. & we moved in the woods North East of town about one mile from town. We layed off camp & put up tents & went to church at night but could not get in the church for the croud. & we returned to camp & retired.

March 20th A.D. 1865. it was a beautiful morning. I got all my dirty cloth washed. Coln Knefler returned from home. We drew one days rations, bread, cod fish & beans. & we had not had meet for a day before we left Huntsville. I put my time in at writing. I went to church early & got a seat & the church was crouded & only a tolerable good sermon was delivered by ( ) from the 18th Vrs 1st Chapter of Isah. We returned to camp & retired late.

March 21st A.D. 1865. it was raining. We drew 3 days rations, except meet, only one days cod fish. It was said our artillery was coming up on the cars. & part of our wagons. & that we will advance out toward Bristol when the road is repaired. I received a letter from home. & they was all well. I writ & sent out two letters. It stoped raining a little while. & we cut logs & put up our house. & it rained & stormed & hailed & thundered & lightened. We have to carry all of our water about 3 quarters of a mile. Genl Batty is comndg our Brig & Genl Wood the Div & he weres his two stars now. Coln Knefler commands our regt now. We retired early.

March 22nd A.D. 1865. it was cool & clear. I was detailed & went on Picket at 8 A.M. & I saw a good deal of cavelry & the 3rd North Carolina goying toward Morristown & I heared a dispatch read stating that Genls Sherman & Scoldfield went in Goldsboro N.C. without a fight. & they was still goying toward Richmond & Genl Sharidon was at the White house & ready to move to the James River. & thought to be there by this time. & Jefferson Davis has turned over his whole command to Genl Lee. & all men at Richmond that could bear arms was armed. & it is thought Genl Lee would make one more desparate effort to repreve the South. Cotton was 55 cts & gold $1.57 1/4. & a speedy evacuation of petersburgh is expected. It was said Genl Woods had issued an order for the boys to put up houses & drill Skirmish: Batallion & Brigade drill each day. There was some artillery & ambulances past. & a train of 82 wagons goying to the front. I was told that Sergt Bratten of Co "K" had a commission as 1st Lieut of CO "K". & it is thought there will be no more commissions in our regt.

March 23rd A.D. 1865. I slept 2 hours. It was clear & cool. We was relieved after 8 A.M. & went to camp. & we had to put up our tent different & we pooled fine boughs to lay on. We formed in line & heared a dispatch read stating that the Genls in the rebel army was perfectly discouriaged & that the President Lincoln thought there would be no more hard fighting. & that the rebel authority was ready to give up. We had orders to drill & have dressparade. We drew one days rations. The first Picle Pork we had drew since we left Huntsville. It was very windy all day. We had dressparade at 6 P.M. & Genl Beatty was to see us. Regt order No. 2 was read stating that Sergt Joseph Cline of Co "C" was appointed Sergt Major in plase of Munhall, now Adjutant. & Private John Shafer of Co "F" was appointed Commissary Sergt, & Genl Order No. 15 & 16 from Genl Wood stating that as we are in a loyal part of the state & that we must not destroy fences or buildings for any loyal citizens as the Government will have to suport them if they cant rais crops & no unauthorized forriageing is to be don. & the caus of our short rations & scarsity is becaus the road is used to transport troops. But soon we are to have full rations & plenty of every thing & we was requested to bear with the scarsity of rations patiently. I received a letter from James. We retired early.

March 24th A.D. 1865. we was up late. It was cool & clear. Our comp furnished 3 men & one Sergt for patroll & 2 men for pickets. I made our a muster roll for Sept & Oct 1862, as we received orders to make out Muster rolls for the first 6 mont of our service. & send them to Washington. It was cool & the wind blew hard. We drew 4 days rations except 2 of Pickle Pork & two coffee & two of tea. We saw troops goying to the front. We retired early.

March 25th A.D. 1865. it was clear & cool. We had orders to police the whole camp. We fell in line & heared a dispatch read stating that only a part of Shermans army had bin defeted in their late battle. & that he is goying on to victory now. The rebel negro troops are deserting fast. & it is said Mobile is evacuated. & the City & a great deal of government stores fell in our hands. Cotton $.40 & gold $1.47 & closed $1.50. I writ & sent out two letters. Some of the 1st Div passed us goying to the front. We retired late.

March 26th A.D. 1865, Sunday. It was clear cool & frosty but turned out to be a beautiful day. Lt Cardell told me if I wanted to use his blackening to blacken my shoes I could use it. We had Camp Inspection & I changed the Bayonet that I drew at Murfreesboro & carryed ever since for another to accomodate others with a fit for their guns. It was rumored we would move in a day or two. The artillery was to have review but got marching orders afterwards. & 4 batterys (all that is in our corps hear) went toward Morristown. & Genl Stanly & Hd Qrs went to the front. & Genl Thomas & staff past on the cars goying to the front. & said to have one months rations with him. It was said that Genl Stanly requested of Genl Thomas so send up the pay masters & pay us 6 month pay. Samuel Swans discharge came back approved & so when he gets it he will be out of the service. I received a letter. We had dressparade. & an order was read showing that Alonzo McNeal of Comp "A" is to have one month ($16) of pay which is due him from the government taken from him for dischargeing the load out of his gun in camp. & another Order showing (Stating) the Officers that constitute Genl Beattys Staff. It was rumered that Genl Lee had left Richmond & gon toward Genl Sherman & Genl Grant is following him. We retired late.

March 27th A.D. 1865. It was a beautiful morning. We drilled skirmish drill one hour. We drew 3 days rations. The teems came up & the 4th Mishigan. I writ some. There was some furloughs came to the regt approved. We drilled over one hour Batallion drill in the afternoon & it was quite a warm day. We drew cod fish. We had dressparade.

March 28th A.D.1865. It was raining a little. We drilled one hour skirmish drill. I received a letter. A paper came to the regt with the names of the men that commissions was issued for lately from Indiana. & I saw that Lt Wm. S. Cardell was capt. & Edwin Byrket 1st Lt Co "C" was Capt & George S. Earl 1st Lt of Co "A" Acting Assisting Adjutant Genl on Genl Beattys Staff was Capt. & Charles Meaney Orderly Sergt Co "C" 1st Lt. & Henry Magsam Orderly Sergt Co "B" 1st Lt. & John B. W. Parker Orderly Sergt Co "G" 1st Lt. & Frances Hedrick Orderly Sergt Co "H" 1st Lt. & Ezra Buchanan sergt Co "D" 1st Lt. & Wm. H. Huntzinger sergt Co "I" 1st Lieut. Those are all for our regt (79th Ind. Vols.). There was an order for all the sick to be sent back & the surpluss (or extra) Baggage & compy desks to be sent to Knoxville. & Co "I" sent back two cracker boxes of Great coats & wool Blankets. I sent Back one new Wool Blanket & one old Ponchoe Rubber & one Great coat & one Pr mits. & I have 3 shirts, 2 Pr drawers, 2 Pr Trowsers & 2 Pr Stockings to take with me to carry with what I wear. We drilled Batallion drill & had dressparade. & sent off our Baggage. The 13th Regt Wisconsin Vols Infty. came in our Brigade & they have a good band. & the 3rd Michigan is still with us.

Dr. McFadden has bin at Div Hospital for about 10 days on duty. The Boys who saw their names in the Indianapolis Paper of 23rd Inst as haveing Commissions issued for them got their measure taken for them to send for a uniform & ast me to send with them to Indianapolis for a uniform. & Lieut Colonel Parker told us he was acquainted with a taylor there & would send the orders for our uniform & tell the taylor he would see that he was paid. & then we could get the cloth without money till Pay day. We retired late.

March 29th A.D. 1865. We received orders in the night to have reveille at 3 A.M. & move at 6 A.M. & we prepaired for the march. Cardell told me I should send for what I needed to fit my uniform out & as I would only draw sergts Pay next pay day. & he would let me have what money I needed & the Boys profered the same. The Genl sounded before 5. & the assembly after 5 A.M. We started after 6. & our Brigade was in front of the Div. & we marched very slow. We stoped before 12 M. & eat dinner. & started before 1 P.M. & went a little ways & stoped for the night after 1 P.M., having marched about 14 miles. It was warm & the roads dusty. I writ after washing good & pitching tents. It rained a good deal. & we retired early.

March 30th A.D. 1865 Reveille after 3 A.M. & the Genl sounded at 15 minuts till 5 & the assembly at 5 A.M. & it was still raining by Showers. & we dryed our tents & baggage the best we could & started at 15 minuts till 6 A.M. & the roads was very muddy. We saw a good many People along the road with the Small Pox. We passed through Morristown & it rained hard & thundered & lightened. We passed through Russelville in Jefferson Co. surounded by beautiful Country. We stoped at 12 M. for the night haveing marched about 14 miles. The Band played to rally the straglers as the new troops in our Brig was stragling a good deal. We pitched tents. It rained. I sent out in the Country & bought some corn bread as we was out of bread. & I spent the last money I had for bread. & we got some crackers of John Israel. We retired early.

March 31st A.D. 1865. Reveille after 4. & the Genl after 5 A.M. It had rained in the night & we dryed our tents & baggage & at 6 A.M. we started & it was cool & drizeling rain. We marched very slow & stoped near Bools [Bull's] Gap at 10 A.M., haveing Marched about 6 miles. There was one regt camped near the gap. & the cars runs through. & the long R.R. Trustle east of the gap is being repaired. It is said the Bridge across Flat Crick West of the Plains is down. I writ some & I had the Tailor in our regt to take my measure for a uniform & had the Order made out by Lt Colonel Parker. & all is ready to send to Indianapolis when I get a chance to send out mail. It cleared off. We drew 3 days rations of Coffee, Sugar, Bread, beans & Pickle Pork. We heared that a whole train & Engin went down when the Flat crick Bridge went down. We retired late. The cars kept such a nois we could hardly sleep.





April 1st A.D. 1865. We was up late. The Boys drew Whiskey. It was a beautiful day. We received mail. The first for 5 days. I received a letter. I also received a Commission as 1st Lieut of Co "I" Vice Thomas C. Batchelor Discharged. & I thought I had justice done once. & If some officers had not took it in hand I dont supos I would have bin commissioned as I never bothered myself about it as much as I ought. The Coln told me that Coln Parker & Major Dunbar Made the recommendations. & as they had commanded the regt for nearly a year he left it all to them to select the one they thought was suitable & the ones who deserved promotion. & so they selected me. & I think it was then they done me justice. We who received commissions went to the Div Hd Qrs to be mustered or get the blanks to be filled out & they had none & we geathered up blanks of the differant companies in the regt & was goying to fill them out & the Genl sounded. & we moved a half mile to a better camp ground & layed off camp. The boys tried to plague me by calling me Lieutenant but I am two old a soldier to be plagued about that. I made out a discharged for myself & a Affidavit & 5 Muster in Rolls. & we all (those who received Commissions) was Sworn. & the papers all signed by the Adjutant & Coln. & he then took them to the mustering officer's quarters. & he was not doing buisness. & we have to wait till some other day. I writ till late & sent out 4 letters. The boys ast Capt Cardell to let them put in a Sergt in my plase by vote of the Comp, & he granted the request. & Privat Wm. D. Mitchell, a worthy soldier, was voted in. Some of the 2nd Div passed on the cars. We retired late.

April 2nd A.D. 1865, Sunday. it was a cool frosty morning but turned out to be a nice day. I writ & sent out 2 letters. The camp was policed. It was said our Recommendations had bin sent up in December (4 while we was at Nashville Tenn). & they layed around. & the Commissions was not issued till the 1st of March 65. We came 36 miles from New Markit hear. There was reg't'l Inspection at 10 A.M. There was a good many trains came in, with some soldiers. There was a rebel Lieut & about 5 men came to Div Hd Qrs & got A E Irwins & one other orderlys & Genl Wood's fine horses. & the guard halted them & had no load in his gun & bayonetted 3 of them & was said to have bin shot twice by them. & the other guards shot the Lt Davis & broke his leg. & he crawled away & was found with his papers burried under him in the ground. He is a Scout from the rebel Comdr Genl Vaughn. & one of his men was captured with him. The others got away. We saw the reb Scout (Lt) riding through our ranks as a Scout in our army the other day as we was marching. He was drest in reb uniform & had no revolvers. & his leg is amputated & I expect they will swing. I received a letter from Thomas C. Batchelor. It was said a dispatch came that a battle was fought in front of Petersburgh. & Genl Grants army whiped the rebels & captured near 4000. I writ & sent out more letters. A dispatch was read to us. Raula is evacuated. Genl Stoneman & Cavelry is in North Carolina. Newes prety good Generly. Cotton .43 & gold 1.50 & still raising. The Pioneers are still cuting Wood every day for the Locomotives. We retired after 8 P.M. & I received a letter with a beautiful Photograph in it.

April 3rd A.D. 1865. it was sprinkling rain. I was detailed for Picket & went on duty so it would not be so hard on Chandler as no one has took my plase yet, & it took 9 men from our Comp. We had orders to let no Citizens through the lines with or without a pass, & no soldier without a pass from Genl Wood. & the Lt Coln of 59th Ill. rode along the road. I ast him if he had a pass. He replyed I have not & I am not to have & that I had no right to halt him. I ast him who he was & he did not answer & I could not ketch his horse as he was past & riding fast. & it made me mad the way he acted & I & Mitchell stood in the road & in about a half hour he came back & I walked before his horse & he tried to ride around me. And I caught his horse & said Colonel, I want to know your name & where you belong & your buisness passing the line. He wanted to know why I wanted to know his name. I told him my orders & that I had a right to know his name & whether he had a right to pass the line. He told his name, rank & regt. We then talked a while & I told him to pass on to his camp. & I reported the case to the comdr of the picket Post. Willard Carter the rebel Lt Scout is said to have died from the wound he received. It is said the 3rd Div would have bin formed to see him hung if he had not died. It is said the 13th O.V.V.I. is goying to stay hear & cut wood for Engins & work at the depot. After 2 P.M. we heared a cannon comence firing every half minut & it seemed to be at Departement Hd Qrs. & I counted 100 shots. We heared cheering all through camp. We saw troops passing on the cars. & we soon heared what the dispatches was. & they was confermed that Peters Burgh was captured after hard fighting & it was rumored that Richmond was ours & 20,000 Prisnors & 52 Pieces of artillery & the boys was very merry. The dispatch soon came conferming the report that Richmond was ours & was taken by assault.

April 4th A.D. 1865. I slept a little & awaked at 6 A.M. & heared the Genl sounding in camp. & we went in & they had drew 3 days rations & drew cod fish. & we put up our rations & started without breakfast at 7 A.M. & marched our regt in front of the Div. & passed through Bull Gap. & it is fortifyed & on a high chain of hills or small mountains. & I think I would be safe in saying it would be impossible to take it by assault. There are 4 counties corners in the gap. Jefferson, Green, Sulevan, Hawkens Co.s. We marched very fast & crossed Lick Crick & saw 1st Div in camp. A dispatch was read to us. Genl Whitsel captured Richmond at 8 A.M. yesterday & many guns. & the enemy left in a hurry & in confusion. The City was on fire at one place. & the Citizens received the yankies with joy. Genl Grant moved to cut off the rebels retreet. President gon to the front. Gold 1.45. It rained some. We passed through a little town called Blue Springs in Green Co. & the 2nd Div was camped there. We stoped at 11:35 for dinner & Genl Beatty told us he would send our regt in front to keep the bushwhackers off till the escort hunts us a camp. & we loaded our guns & started at 1 P.M. & marched uncomonly fast & got to Greenville the Co. Seet of Green Co., a beautifull little town situated on the E.T.& V.R.R. at 3 P.M. & passed through and camped near town at 3:30, haveing marched about 20 miles. We layed off camp & had orders to put up tents single. We was showed where the rebel Genl John Morgan was killed by our men. We pitched tents & before dark an order came from Div Hd Qrs for 72 men & noncommissioned & 3 Commissioned officers from our regt to Provost in town. It took 6 men & one sergt from our Comp. It is said we will do the Provost duty while we stay hear. & it is the first time for our regt to do Provost duty since we have bin in the army. We heared there was a regt (80th Ill) in this town. & a signal corps & the regt went out on a scout a fiew days ago. & some wemon rang the bells & the guerillas came in & captured the signal corps & was leving. & the regt recaptured them & the guerillas. & the Women is hand cuffed. We retired late.

April 5th A.D. 1865 we was up late. & a detail of 60 men was made for P.V.G. & was ordered to blacken shoes & rig & brighten brass & brush cloth & make a nice apperance on guard mount & on duty. There was regular guard mount at 10 A.M. & it was said our Brig was goying to move to Jonesboro today. & it was not knowen whether our regt would go or not. At 11 A.M. we got orders to be ready to move till one P.M. & I gave Ben F. Long an order to get my Valise if he went home on furlough. Our regt had to guard the train of wagons. The Brigade started before 1 P.M. & a dispatch was read to us stating there was 28 Locomotives & passenger & 100 fruit cars & a great deal of artillery taken at Richmond & 12,000 Prisnors & altogeather the prisnors nombers 20,000 & the roads that the rebels retreeted on are strewen with artillery casons wagons & ambulances burned & everything of the kind showing that the rebels are hurryed & cannot take all away. & the woods is full of rebels which are being picked up daily. It rained a little. We started before 2 P.M. & strung out to guard the train. & put our Knapsacks in the wagons. We passed through a tolerable good country & splendid timber & saw a good many wemon who seemed glad to see yanks goying East. We passed through Ray town, a small plase in Green Co. & stoped near town for the night at 5:45. The Brig had bin in camp a good while. We had marched 10 miles. We could see the Smoaky Mountains or chain of Alleghany Mountains. & they are very high. James Hague was unwell & road in ambulance. Dunlap got 24 Egges. & we eat them for supper. We retired late.

April 6th A.D. 1865. Reveille at 4 A.M. It had rained during the night. & we started at 6 A.M. & it still rained some. My feet was full of blisters. & as all of the boys lately Commissioned got part of their load halled, I put my Knapsack in the Wagon. Hague went to the ambulance. We saw a good many Citizens. We passed through Leesburgh in Washington Co. We stoped at 12 M. for dinner. & in 15 minuts had fires built, meet fried & coffee made & ready to eat. We marched slow as the new troops was in front & went slow over the hills. It is said that Knefler could have stayed at Greeneville & bin Provost Martial, but he prefered goying with the Brigade. Knefler walked & let tiered boys ride his horse. We started at 1:30 P.M. & stoped near Jonesboro I supose while the escort hunted camp. A camp was found. & we marched in Jonesboro the County Seet of Washington Co. We camped a regt at a plase to front from town. Jonesboro is an oald but nice looking town surrounded by large hills. Has 3 Church Houses in it. The most of the buildings are brick. We stoped at 3:45 P.M. North of town, haveing marched 15 miles today. & 45 since we left Bull Gap. We layed off Camp, & pitched tents & sent out Pickets. & 60 men was detailed from the regt for P.V.G. in town. I turned over my gun & Bayonett compleet & the same accoutrements I drew at Louisville Ky. & the same brass plates I drew there in 1862 & have carryed them ever since. I expected to do duty as 1st Lt amediatly as soon as my detail come around. & Capt Cardell told Dunlap to report me on morning report as 1st Lt to date from 1st of April & Wm. D. Mitchell as Sergt. date same. & Jas Hague as Corporal, date from 1st March. A detail of men was sent in town to get lumber to put up little houses & buncks. We retired late.

April 7th A.D. 1865. It rained nearly all night & still rained. There was a train of wagons started back after rations. It stoped raining. We put up a house over 3 feet high, & eve boards & two good buncks to lay on. & we drew 5 days rations except Pork only 3 days & 3 of Suger & some fresh beef. I writ some & retired late.

April 8th A.D. 1865. it was clear & frosty. There is some of our men bushwhacked nearly every day around here & details are being sent out to get the guerrillas. I was detailed for P.V.G. & we had regular regtl guard mount at 8 A.M. I went out for the first time as a commissioned officer. We marched down to the Courthouse as the guards quarters there. I had charge of 3rd relief, 15 men as there only 45 men, 3 sergts & 3 commissioned officers. There was strict orders. We saw a train goying to Genl Stoneman. It was a nice day. I saw a good many nice looking young ladies goying to a church with notebooks. & Lt Magsam & I went in & heared them sing & play on the Piano (Mulodian or some kind of music instrument at least). & they made nice music. & it reminded me of home. The Brig Band played at differant houses all through town. We went through town after 9 P.M. Patrolling the town & had fun seeing the soldiers runn for camp to escape us.

April 9th A.D. 1865, Sunday. I slept but little. It was sprinkling rain. We was relieved after 8 A.M. & went to camp. The boys had put up a good table. I went to the Presbyterian church & heared a good Sermon delivered by the Chaplain of 3rd Michigan from the 1st, 2nd & 3rd Vrs of 1st Psalm. & there was a good many citizens & quite a number of Ladies & Genl Beatty & Staff & nearly all the officers in our Brigade Present. The Ladies are very well Prepaired to make nice music. They are splendid singers & have a good music Instrument. I could not help asking god to hasten the time when peace will once more rain over America so we can go home to enjoy our selves once more at home & church. It rained study. The news came that Lees army was all demoralised & nearly all captured. Hague was sick. We retired late. It rained nearly all night.